@Heritage Architecture
19-Jun-2024 04 am
 

The medieval Dundaga Castle is located in the Talsi Municipality of the Latvian Courland area. Dundaga Castle is regarded by Latvia as a significant architectural and archaeological landmark. Possessions of Dundaga came under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Riga in 1237. Constructed adjacent to a Curonian town was Dundaga Castle. The precise date of construction remains unknown, however literary records date it to 1318. It is believed that the stronghold was built in the latter half of the thirteenth century and was repeatedly taken by the Livonian Order. The castle was first sold to the Bishopric of Courland in 1434. It was then bought back by the King of Denmark in 1559, who then gave it to his brother Magnus, Duke of Holstein, who would go on to become a bishop of Curonia. Anna Sybil converted it from a mediaeval stronghold to a representative home for county nobleman in the middle of the 17th century. In 1785, a third story was constructed. The castle belonged to the Osten-Sacken family until 1920. In 1872, a fire severely damaged and destroyed the medieval interiors of Dundaga Castle. It burned down once more in 1905, and after the design of H. Pfeiffer, renovations started in 1909. The castle was consequently updated and changed. Water envelops the fortress on three sides. Originally protected by a moat in the Middle Ages, the fourth side is now level. The castle has been a public facility serving as a school, cultural center, and administrative center for the local government since 1926. Many myths, folklore, and ghost stories that are based on the castle often resemble actual historical occurrences. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
16-Jun-2024 04 am
 

Situated on the left bank of the Neris River, close to its convergence with the Vilnia River, in Vilnius, Lithuania, lies the Vilnius Castle Complex, a collection of historically significant and cultural buildings. The buildings were among the most important defensive constructions of Lithuania, and they developed between the tenth and the eighteenth centuries. Three castles made up the complex: the Upper, Lower, and Crooked, which is known as Kreivoji pilis in Lithuanian. The Teutonic Knights destroyed the Crooked Castle in 1390, and it was never rebuilt. After 1390, the Teutonic Order launched multiple attacks against the Vilnius Castles, but they were unable to capture the entire complex. The first time it was fully captured was at the Battle of Vilnius in 1655. Based on archeological findings, the location of the Upper Castle has been inhabited since the Neolithic era. In the ninth century, the hill was fortified with stone walls and defensive timber barriers. A timber castle dates back to the tenth century, and stone walls with towers have encircled the peak since the 13th century. Vilnius was chosen as the capital city during the reign of Gediminas, and the fortress underwent improvements and expansion in 1323. For about 200 years, the Christian Orders and Pagan Lithuania were at war. The Orders claimed that their goal was to convert the pagan Lithuanians to Catholicism, which led them to attempt to subjugate Lithuania. Vilnius became a major military target as it developed into one of the most significant cities of the state. The Upper, Lower, and Crooked Castles were the three parts of the Complex at the time of the 1390 invasion. Though they were unable to conquer the others, the Teutonic Knights were able to seize and demolish the Crooked Castle, which was located on Bleak Hill. The Vilnius Castles were under siege for more than three weeks during the 1394 battle, and one of its defense towers was devastated and collapsed into the Neris River. The Astrava Agreement of 1392 ended the civil war between Vytautas and Jogaila, and Vytautas became the Grand Duke. Vytautas began rebuilding the Upper Castle and fortifying the other structures in the complex following a significant fire in 1419. This is the period when the current remnants of the Upper Castle were built. The renovation of the Upper Castle was completed in 1422 and included glazed green tiling on the roof in the Gothic style. Many historic structures were destroyed during the Tsarist takeover, and many more sustained damage during the 19th-century construction of the fortress. The surviving Gediminas Tower serves as a significant national and city icon today. Flag Day is observed annually on January 1st, when the Lithuanian tricolor is flown atop Gediminas Tower. One of the biggest museums in the nation, the National Museum of Lithuania, includes the complex. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
15-Jun-2024 04 am
 

 In the English county of Northumberland, there lies a medieval fortress known as Warkworth Castle, which is now in ruins. Situated less than a mile from the northeast coast of England, the village and castle are situated around a loop of the River Coquet. The castle may have been erected by King Henry II of England when he seized control of the northern counties of the country, however Prince Henry of Scotland, Earl of Northumbria, is generally credited with building it around the middle of the 12th century. The first record of Warkworth Castle dates back to 1157–1164, when Roger fitz Richard received a charter from Henry II. When the Scots arrived in 1173, the timber castle was undefended because it was deemed weak. Robert, son of Roger, received the castle and made improvements. King John loved Robert so much that in 1213 he invited him to stay at Warkworth Castle. With times of guardianship when heirs were too young to manage their holdings, the castle stayed in the family. In 1292, John de Clavering, a Roger Fitz Richard descendant, claimed the Crown as his inheritor after King Edward I spent the night there. Edward II made investments in various castles at the start of the Anglo-Scottish Wars, one of which being Warkworth, where he provided funds for the garrison-reinforcement in 1319. The Scots unsuccessfully assaulted the castle twice in 1327. Added in the late 14th century by Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, the impressive keep watches over the settlement of Warkworth. The fourth earl started constructing a collegiate church inside the castle and remodeled the bailey-buildings, but after his passing, all work on the project was stopped. The English Civil War caused damage to the castle, despite the support of 10th Earl of Northumberland for Parliament. The last Percy earl passed away in 1670. Hugh Smithson, who wed the indirect Percy heiress, acquired the castle in the middle of the eighteenth century. Taking taking the surname Percy, he established the lineage of the Dukes of Northumberland, who subsequently inherited the castle. The dukes renovated Warkworth Castle in the late 1800s, and Anthony Salvin was hired to rebuild the keep. In 1922, the Office of Works took administration of the castle from the 8th Duke of Northumberland. The building is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and Grade I listed structure that has been in the care of English Heritage since 1984. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
11-Jun-2024 06 pm
 

One of the biggest and most significant castles of Scotland in terms of architecture and history is Stirling Castle, which is situated in Stirling. Perched on an intrusive crag that is a component of the Stirling Sill geological formation, is the castle. It is in a strong tactical position since sheer cliffs encircle it on three sides. Its advantageous location, protecting what was the furthest downstream crossing of the River Forth until the 1890s, has made it a significant fortification in the area since prehistoric times. The majority of the main structures of the castle were constructed in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The outside defenses that front the town were built in the early eighteenth century, however a few structures from the fourteenth century still stand. Stirling Castle, which served as both a palace and a fortification prior to its unification with England, was among the most frequently utilized royal homes in Scotland. Stirling has been the birthplace of several Scottish kings and queens, notably Mary, Queen of Scots, who was anointed there in 1542. Stirling Castle has been under siege at least eight times, the most recent of which occurred in 1746 when Bonnie Prince Charlie made an abortive attempt to conquer the fortress. These sieges occurred over many Wars of Scottish Independence. Currently under the management of Historic Environment Scotland, Stirling Castle is a tourist destination and a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The Maeatae might have been living on the rock at this time, but the Romans avoided Stirling in favor of constructing a fort near Doune. It has also been connected to a settlement known in the 7th and 8th centuries as Iudeu, when King Penda of Mercia sacked King Oswy of Bernicia in 655. Afterwards, it might have served as a fortress for the Manaw Gododdin. Thirty years later, in the Battle of Dun Nechtain, the Northumbrians were routed and the region was taken over by the Pictish. Nevertheless, Castle Hill was not occupied prior to the late medieval era, according to archeological findings. About 1110, King Alexander I dedicated a chapel at Stirling Castle, marking the beginning of written records about the castle. Since Alexander passed away here in 1124, it seems to have been a well-established royal center by this point. Stirling became a royal burgh and the castle a significant administrative hub under the rule of his successor David I. In 1174, King William I was captured by the English and compelled to give up many castles, including Stirling and Edinburgh Castle, as part of the Treaty of Falaise. Nevertheless, he created a deer park southwest of the castle. Richard I of England formally returned the fortress in 1189, although there is no proof that the English ever lived there. Stirling remained a preferred royal home; Alexander III laid up the New Park in the 1260s for the sake of deer shooting, and William himself passed away there in 1214. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
10-Jun-2024 04 am
 

Located in the English county of East Sussex, Lewes Castle is a medieval stronghold. Once known as Bray Castle, it stands sentinel over the gap in the South Downs created by the River Ouse, in which the towns of Cliffe and Lewes are situated. Built from native limestone and flint stones, it is situated on an artificial hill north of the main street of Lewes. The only other castle in England with a motte and bailey layout is Lincoln Castle. The castle, however, is unique in that it has two mottes. Following the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, the first motte, known as Brack Mount, was finished, and the second motte, known as the Keep, was finished in the late 11th century. William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, built both mottes. At the beginning of the 12th century, brick shell keeps took the place of the wooden palisades that had hitherto topped the mottes. There was a stone wall with towers in the Bailey area as well. At the Battle of Lewes in 1264, soldiers withdrew from the fortress to fight Simon de Montfort. One of the shell keeps had towers erected to it in the thirteenth century, and a barbican gate was added in the fourteenth. Following his untimely death in 1347, John, the 7th Earl of Warennes, was laid to rest in Lewes Priory. His nephew Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, inherited his title. The Sussex Archaeological Society began renting the castle in 1850. Charles Thomas-Stanford later purchased the castle and gave it to the organization in 1922. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
08-Jun-2024 02 am
 

In Pula, Croatia, there is a well-maintained Roman temple called the Temple of Augustus. It was most likely constructed during the reign of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, somewhere between 27 BC and his death in AD 14. It is dedicated to the emperor. It stands at a height of 14 meters and has a tetrastyle prostyle porch made of Corinthian columns. It was constructed on a platform. The elaborately adorned frieze bears resemblance to one of the most notable and relatively new temples in France, the Maison Carrée in Nîmes. The two most complete Roman monuments outside of Italy are thought to be these two temples. The temple was one of three that made up a triad. On one side of the primary shrine was the temple dedicated to the goddess Diana, and on the other stood the temple dedicated to Augustus. The entire rear of the Temple of Diana is still distinctly visible despite the loss of the bigger central temple, which was incorporated into the 1296-built Communal Palace. The temple would have been shut down during the persecution of pagan during late Roman Empire if it had been in operation by the fourth century. The temple was utilized as a granary before being transformed into a church during Byzantine authority, which explains why it has survived to this day. By the late 1800s, the temple was partially hidden by buildings and stood at the intersection of the marketplace of Pula. It was nearly completely destroyed in 1944 when it was bombed during an Allied air strike, but it was rebuilt in 1947. Today, Roman sculpture is on exhibit within its lapidarium. Bronze lettering was originally nailed to the stones of the architrave to represent the consecration of the temple. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
07-Jun-2024 03 pm
 

In Cornwall, England, the UK, Restormel Castle is located close to Lostwithiel on the River Fowey. It is one of four principal Norman castles of Cornwall, along with Launceston, Tintagel, and Trematon. The castle is distinguished by its flawlessly round architecture. Situated in the parish of Bodardle manor of Lanlivery, Restormel was a part of the Norman magnate Robert, fief of Count of Mortain. Baldwin Fitz Turstin, the local sheriff, most likely constructed Restormel fortress as a motte and bailey fortress in 1100 following the Norman conquest of England. For almost two centuries, lineage of Baldwin kept the manor as tenants and vassals of the Earls of Cornwall. Despite being the opulent home of Earl of Cornwall until the 16th century, the castle was all but destroyed. During the English Civil War, it was briefly reoccupied and the site of fighting, but it was later abandoned. Now that English Heritage is in charge of it, it is accessible to everyone. Restormel Castle, which is perched on a high point with a view of the River Fowey, is a remarkably intact example of a circular shell keep, a unique kind of fortification constructed for a brief time in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. There are just 71 instances known to exist in Wales and England, with Restormel Castle being the best preserved. These castles were constructed by transforming a wooden motte-and-bailey fortification, with a stone wall erected in place of the palisade outside and a plethora of domestic stone structures erected inside the bailey. To serve as a defense, these were grouped together inside the wall. In a dramatic example of the 13th-century pattern, the buildings are bent to fit into the shell keep. The wall is up to 2.4 meters thick and has a diameter of 38 meters. With a wall walk 25 feet above the ground, it still stands tall, and the battlemented parapet is largely intact. Slate, which looks to have been quarried from the scarp face northeast of the castle, was used to build both the wall and the interior structures. The solar, guest quarters, kitchen, hall, and ante-chapel were among the household structures housed inside the wall. The castle structures were supplied with pressurized water from a naturally occurring spring. The entrance to the inner castle is guarded by a square gate tower, which is mostly destroyed. It is possible that this was the first portion of the old castle to be built entirely of stone. The chapel is located on the other side; it is believed to have been added in the thirteenth century and is housed inside a square tower that protrudes from the wall. It seems to have been altered during the English Civil War to become a gun emplacement. There was formerly an external bailey wall that was made of wood and had earthwork defenses. It has since been destroyed and is no longer visible. Additionally, there are historical allusions to a dungeon that has since disappeared. The castle gives the impression that it is perched atop a motte; its enormous walls were, remarkably for the time, buried deeply into the original motte. An outside ringwork that is later filled in to give the impression that it is heaped up against the castle wall enhances the effect. This might have happened in a later era of the existence of the castle to create a garden walk surrounding the ruin. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
06-Jun-2024 04 am
 

The gothic Teutonic fortress Bytów Castle was once the bastion of the Pomeranian dukes. Situated on a hill in southeast Bytów, the fortress was constructed around 1390 by the Teutonic Knights. The construction of the castle was overseen by Mikołaj Fellenstein between 1398 and 1406. The 49-by-70-meter stone and brick fortress was built according to a rectangular blueprint. Three cylinder towers and one square tower were constructed at each of the castle-corners. Living quarters were located in a three-story building on the northwest wing of the castle. The office of the prosecutor, the chapel, and the refectory were among the most significant rooms in this structure. The third story was dedicated to warehouse space. Water well stood close to the kitchen and food store located in the southwest wing of the castle. From the northeastern side of the castle, the gate was raised. A moat and drawbridge that functioned as the entryway were located close to the gate. The four towers of the castle, one in each corner, housed weapons and functioned as defensive buildings. The castle captured the Kingdom of Poland in 1410, led by Władysław Jagiełło. During the Thirteen Years War, the fortress came under the authority of the Kingdom of Poland. The fortress was given over by King Kazimierz Jagiellończyk in 1466 to the Duchy of Pomerania, which was subsequently headed by Eric II, the Duke of Pomerania. The stronghold had bastions and defenses all around it in 1500. The House of Pomerania lived at the castle in the second part of the 16th century; from 1560 to 1570, the southeast wing served as their dwelling. The stronghold suffered minimal damage during the Thirty Years War. The starosta moved into the castle with the passing of the last member of the House of Pomerania in 1638. During the Deluge, the castle was destroyed by the Swedish army. Following the election of Frederick William I of Prussia as elector of Brandenburg, the castle was partially restored in the 19th century. There was a jail and a court inside the castle. The first conservation efforts were carried out in the period from 1930 to 1939. Later, the castle had several reconstructions between 1957 and 1962 and 1969 and 1990, when it was home to the Western Pomeranian Museum and a hotel with a restaurant and a library. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
04-Jun-2024 01 am
 

In Arundel, West Sussex, England, there is a medieval castle that has been renovated and restored. In the eleventh century, Roger de Montgomery founded it. Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk, repaired the castle in the 18th and 19th centuries after it was devastated during the English Civil War. The Earls of Arundel and the Dukes of Norfolk have called the castle their home since the eleventh century. The building is categorized as Grade I. It was once a motte-and-bailey castle. The King gave Roger de Montgomery the estate as part of a much bigger bundle of hundreds of manors, and he was proclaimed the first Earl of Arundel. Roger, the cousin of William the Conqueror, had remained in Normandy to maintain order while William was away in England. He received large territories in the Welsh Marches, throughout the nation, and a fifth of Sussex as compensation for his allegiance. Around 1067, he started construction on Arundel Castle. Robert of Bellême, the owner of the castle, rebelled, and between 1101 and 1102, the army of Henry I besieged the fortress. The castle gave itself over to the king at the end of the siege. The fortress was under siege in 1643, during the First English Civil War. After eighteen days, the 800 royalists within submitted. Later, in 1653, Parliament mandated that the castle be slighted. Nonetheless, it is thought that weather likely caused greater damage. Over the ensuing decades, the Howard family kept ownership of the castle, but it was not their preferred home. Instead, the several Dukes of Norfolk dedicated their time and resources on enhancing other ducal properties, such as Norfolk House in London. It was at this time that Francis Hiorne was commissioned by the Duke to build the folly that still exists on the hill above Swanbourne Lake. Queen Victoria spent three days at Arundel Castle in 1846 with her husband, Prince Albert. The castle was internally remodeled by Henry Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk, just in time for her visit. The furniture design was created by the architectural firm Morant. During this period, a suite of six rooms was constructed on the second floor of the southeast range. Following the 1846 royal visit, the 15th Duke started rebuilding the castle once more, and he did so from 1875 until 1905. By early 2020, the large gardens had undergone substantial restoration thanks to the work of head gardener Martin Duncan and his team. Duncan, a landscape designer and horticulturist, has been employed at the Castle since 2009. He was awarded the Kew Guild Medal in 2018. A wild water garden encircling the ponds is the result of the most recent efforts of the gardeners and volunteers. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
02-Jun-2024 02 am
 

The Bodiam Castle in East Sussex, England is a medieval castle with moat from the fourteenth century that lies close to Robertsbridge. With the approval of Richard II, it was constructed in 1385 A.D. by Sir Edward Dalyngrigge, a former knight of Edward III, supposedly to safeguard the region against French invasion during the Hundred Years War. Bodiam Castle has a quadrangular layout and no keep; instead, its numerous chambers are placed around the outside defending walls and inner courts. Towers with battlement sections on top identify its corners and entryway. The architecture of the castle, its features, and setting amid a man-made watery backdrop show that presentation was as vital to the design as fortification. It served as both as the family residence of Dalyngrigge and the administrative hub for the manor of the Bodiam. Bodiam Castle was owned by the Dalyngrigges family for numerous decades until their line died out, at which point it was married over to the Lewknor family. When Richard III of the House of York became king in 1483 A.D., an army was sent to sack Bodiam Castle because Sir Thomas Lewknor had backed the House of Lancaster during the Wars of the Roses. It is unknown if the blockade proceeded, although it is assumed that Bodiam was abandoned with little opposition. When Henry VII of the House of Lancaster became king in 1485 A.D. , the castle was seized but later returned to the Lewknors. The castle was owned by the Lewknor family until at least the sixteenth century. Lord Thanet had control of Bodiam Castle by the time the English Civil War broke out in 1641 A.D. He backed the Royalist side and sold the castle to assist pay the fines Parliament imposed against him. After then, the castle was destroyed, and it remained a scenic ruin until John Fuller bought it in 1829 A.D. After then, the castle was destroyed, and it remained a scenic ruin until John Fuller bought it in 1829 A.D. Until being sold to George Cubitt, 1st Baron Ashcombe and later to Lord Curzon, who both conducted additional renovation work, the castle was partly renovated under his direction. As a Grade I listed structure and Scheduled Monument, the castle is conserved. Since 1925, at the bequest of Lord Curzon, The National Trust has owned the property, which is accessible to the general public. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
31-May-2024 05 am
 

Situated in Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain, on one side of the Alcántara Bridge, is the Roman temple dedicated to Alcántara. It is one of just two nearly intact Roman temples in Spain, the other being the temple of Vic. The same architect, Gaius Julius Lacer, created the triumphal arch, the temple, and the bridge. He devoted the last structure to the deified emperors of Rome. His work was completed in 103 AD. Although the origin of the architect seems to be local, the building-elements share a stylistic similarity with modern structures in the province of Italica. This implies that the architect was born in what is now Italy and either studied there or subsequently relocated to the region of Lusitania. The temple was built as an offering to the Roman gods and Trajan. The temple would have been shut down if it had been in operation during the fourth-century persecution of pagans under Christian emperors. One of the reasons the structure is still in such good condition is that the temple was transformed into a chapel dedicated to St. Julian following the invasion of Cáceres by Ferdinand II of Leon in 1169. A skull with tibias was added during the conversion, along with a belfry. Eventually, the temple would rise to prominence on the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route. The tomb of the architect is still intact inside the temple where he was interred. Alcántara is thus a tiny, rectangular, antis votive temple that has just one camera or cell. Granite was utilized in the temple-construction. Two Tuscan columns stand on either side of the entry, which can be reached via an external stairway. The entrance has a gabled roof composed of stone slabs, a pediment with trim around the sides, and an unadorned, smooth tympanum. The bill reminds me of the Athens Treasury at Delphi. Granite blocks of the same size are used to construct the bridge and temple. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
30-May-2024 04 am
 

A castle in Ivangorod, Leningrad Oblast, Russia, is known as the Ivangorod Fortress. It dates back to the fifteenth century. It is situated across from the Estonian city of Narva on the east bank of the Narva River, which serves as the present international border between Russia and Estonia. Constructed in opposition to the formidable Teutonic Hermann Castle, the Ivangorod Fortress was built in 1492 under the reign of Ivan III with the dual goals of reinforcing the access of Muscovy to the Baltic Sea and serving as a barrier against the Teutonic Order. The fort-walls were steadily strengthened and extended as it eventually gave rise to the settlement of Ivangorod. In 1492, the original castle was built in a single summer. It bears the name of Grand Prince Ivan III of Moscow. Its aim was to repel the Knights of Livonian. The walls of the strictly quadrilateral fortress are 14 meters high. Later in the year, Mikhail Klyapin and Prince Ivan Gundar led the Muscovite army that reclaimed Ivangorod from the Livonian Order. To reclaim the castle, restore it, and erect new barracks and stronger bastions, three thousand troops arrived. The area around the castle saw continual fighting for over a decade. The surrounding land and the fortification were frequently turned over. The castle underwent numerous reconstructions and fortifications, becoming as one of the most formidable defensive constructions of the sixteenth century. Up until the seventeenth century, the castle was under construction, becoming into a massive, multi-layered stronghold. As technology advanced after the early 1700s, the military function of the fortress decreased. An assessment of the fortifications in this region conducted in 1728 found that the construction had been disregarded and had a low fighting effectiveness. An order was made to restore the Ivangorod stronghold, but following an assessment in 1738, it was determined that the castle was insufficient for defense. The fortification had some renovations around 1840, and other upgrades were made in 1863 and 1911–1914. On February 25, 1918, the Germans took control of the fortification during World War I. The stronghold served as a transit camp between 1920 and 1921 for former POWs being sent back to Russia and Germany. Following the 1940 invasion by USSR and annexation of Estonia, the castle saw two periods of rule during World War II: the USSR from 1940 to 1941 and Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1944. Nazi Germany created two prisoner centers within the fortress and left many of its structures damaged following their evacuation. From January 1945, the Ivangorod stronghold was moved from Narva to the Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, when Soviet authorities declared the Narva River to be the new administrative border between the Estonian SSR and Russian SFSR. The town and fortress stayed with the Russian SFSR in August 1991 with the establishment of the independent Republic of Estonia, and later with the Russian Federation following the disintegration of the Soviet Union in December 1991. The fortification is now used as a museum. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
29-May-2024 04 am
 

Hermann Castle, sometimes referred to as the Narva fortress or the Narva castle, is a medieval stronghold located in the northern Estonian city of Narva. Around 1256, while the region was a part of the Danish Realm, the castle was built. At the start of the 14th century, the first fortifications made completely of stone were constructed. August 1346 saw the castle purchased by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order, who would go on to own it for the most of its subsequent existence. After capturing northern Estonia in the thirteenth century, the Kingdom of Denmark created a border fortification in the middle of the 13th century, first constructing it out of wood near the junction of the Narva River and an old road. With the stronghold providing protection, the older community grew into the town of Narva, which in the first half of the fourteenth century was granted town rights of Lübeck. In the early 14th century, the Danish kings began constructing a stone fortress as a border fortification after multiple battles with the nearby East Slavic republics of Novgorod and Pskov. At first, it was a little, castellum-shaped structure with 40-meter-tall sides and a tower at its northwest corner that was the forerunner of the Hermann Tower today. Since the town of Narva was not encircled by a wall during Danish rule, a small forecourt was constructed at the north side of the base at the outset of the fourteenth century, and in the middle of the century, a large forecourt was developed on the west side. Here, citizens were permitted to hide in case of war. The Livonian Order purchased northern Estonia, including Narva, from King Valdemar IV of Denmark in 1346. The Order renovated the structure into a convent building that suited their requirements. With its colossal wings and central courtyard, the castle has largely maintained its original layout. The Livonian Order also finished the Hermann Tower, which was made necessary by construction of the Ivangorod fortification by Muscovite Russia on the other side of the Narva River in 1492. The settlement was encircled by a fortified wall built by the Order, but it has not survived. Four gates are mentioned as being on the wall. Drawbridges stood in front of the gates, which were covered with iron plates. The town wall was bordered by a moat and measured about one kilometer in length. It was defended with a minimum of seven towers. The town wall was reinforced towards the end of the reign of the Livonian Order in the sixteenth century, and several wall towers were modified to serve as unique cannon towers or rondels. Two of these can still be seen today in the recreated form in the corners of the western court of the castle. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Historical Events
28-May-2024 04 am
 

During the latter stages of the Gallic Wars of Julius Caesar, Vercingetorix, a Gallic monarch and ruler of the Arverni tribe, rallied the Gauls in an abortive uprising against Roman forces. He was put to death at Rome after giving himself over to Caesar and being imprisoned for over six years. The chief of the Gallic tribes, Celtillus the Arvernian, was the father of Vercingetorix. Following his official identification as chieftain of the Arverni at the oppidum Gergovia in 52 BC, Vercingetorix rose to prominence. Vercingetorix, a Gaulish name, literally means the Great or Supreme Leader of Warriors or Heroes. As soon as possible, he formed a coalition with other Gallic tribes, assumed leadership, rallied all the forces, and guided the Celts in their greatest uprising against Roman rule. In the Battle of Gergovia, he defeated Julius Caesar, resulting in the deaths of many thousand Romans and their allies and the withdrawal of the Roman troops. Attempt of Vercingetorix to bring the Gauls together against the Roman invasion was too little, too late, as Caesar had taken advantage of the internal differences within the Gauls to easily subdue the nation. His armies were besieged and routed by the Romans at the Battle of Alesia, which took place in 52 BC. He surrendered to the Romans in an attempt to save as many of his soldiers as possible. He spent five years in prison. Vercingetorix was eventually executed by garroting after being paraded through the streets of Rome in 46 BC as a part of the victory of Caesar. Most of the information of Vercingetorix does come from Commentarii de Bello Gallico written by Julius Caesar. He is still revered as a folk hero in France, particularly in his home province of Auvergne. #History

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@Heritage Architecture
27-May-2024 08 pm
 

A historic stronghold located in Gwynedd, northwest Wales, is called Caernarfon Castle. The first stronghold of the site was a motte-and-bailey castle constructed in the late 11th century. William the Conqueror focused on Wales after conquering England with the Norman Conquest. Nominally ruling all of northern Wales was the Norman Robert of Rhuddlan, according to the Domesday Survey of 1086. In 1088, the Welsh killed him. By constructing three castles—one at Aberlleiniog on Anglesey, one at Caernarfon, and one at an unidentified location in Meirionnydd—his cousin, the Earl of Chester, reestablished Norman dominance over north Wales. The early castle had a motte and bailey that was protected by earthworks and a timber wall. It was situated on a peninsula that was bordered by the River Seiont and the Menai Strait. In 1283, King Edward I of England started construction on the existing stone building. Large-scale defenses were constructed around the castle and town that Edward founded because they served as administrative hub of North Wales. The walls of the castle are evocative of the Walls of Constantinople, and there was a purposeful nod to Roman past of Caernarfon —the Roman fort of Segontium is located nearby. Caernarfon was surrounded by town walls constructed during the castle-construction. Between £20,000 and £25,000 were spent on the project from the beginning until its completion in 1330. The exterior of the castle gives the impression that it is largely finished, although many of the internal buildings have been abandoned or destroyed. During the uprising of Madog ap Llywelyn against the English in 1294, the town and castle were besieged and taken prisoner; however, they were retaken the following year. Attempts to besiege the castle during the Glyndŵr Rising in 1410–1415 were unsuccessful. Castles were regarded as less significant once the Tudor dynasty took the English crown in 1485, easing tensions between the Welsh and English. Caernarfon Castle thus suffered from a condition of neglect. Caernarfon Castle was besieged three times by Parliamentarian forces and held by Royalists during the English Civil War, despite its decaying state. The castle was never utilized in combat again after this. Up until the nineteenth century, when the state paid for renovations, the castle was abandoned. The Prince of Wales was invested in 1911 and again in 1969 at the castle. The historic environment service of the Welsh Government, Cadw, is in charge of overseeing the castle. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
27-May-2024 02 am
 

Situated on an island in Lake Galvė, Trakai, Lithuania is home to the island castle known as Trakai Island Castle. Kęstutis started building the stone castle in the fourteenth century, and his son Vytautas the Great finished most of the major construction around 1409. Vytautas the Great died in this castle in 1430. The capital of Grand Duchy of Lithuania was Trakai, and the fortress was strategically significant. Despite opposition from Soviet authorities, Lithuanian initiative led to the reconstruction of the castle in the 1950s and 1960s. With the renovation came the establishment of the Trakai History Museum. Building on Trakai Island Castle took place in stages. In the latter part of the fourteenth century, Grand Duke Kęstutis gave the order to build the castle on the largest of three lake islands during the first phase. The strengthening and enlargement of the Trakai Peninsula Castle influenced the building of Trakai Island Castle. Kęstutis relocated his treasury and principal residence to the Island Castle. Major destruction was caused to the fortress in 1377 by an attack by the Teutonic knights. Following the murder of Kęstutis, Jogaila and Vytautas the Great engaged in a power war over who would become the Grand Duke of Lithuania. Both sides were laying siege to the castle. The second phase of building began soon after Jogaila and Vytautas reconciled, and it lasted until 1409. The second stage is thought to be the most significant advancement in the castle-history. Four years before to the Battle of Grunwald, it appears that the construction project was overseen by the stonemason Radike of the Teutonic Order during the ceasefire. Two wings were added and a six-story keep was constructed on the southern side during the second phase. The palace and the castle were divided by movable gates on the keep. In addition to acting as an additional defensive construction, the keep housed living rooms and a chapel. It was connected to the inner courtyard of the multistory Ducal Palace. Wooden galleries encircled the inner wall of the inner yard, providing access to numerous support facilities without requiring one to enter the palace itself. The main building material used was known as red Gothic brick. Only the walls, towers, and foundations of buildings were constructed using stone blocks. The third stage saw a new growth with the extension of the castle in the early 15th century. The walls of the castle were raised with more fire galleries and reinforced to a 2.5-meter thickness. On the corners were built three large defensive towers. Additionally, the southwest tower used as a jail. The top level of the tower was intended for soldiers and included a sizable number of cannons. The victory of the Polish-Lithuanian army over their primary adversary, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, at the Battle of Grunwald quickly caused Trakai Island Castle to lose its military significance. The interior of the castle was renovated and turned into a dwelling. Its walls were decorated with fresh frescoes that are still partially intact. The Ducal Palace welcomed foreign emissaries. Plans for the reconstruction of the castle were created in the 19th century. Wincenty Smokowski maintained and replicated the ancient frescoes. In 1888, the Imperial Archaeological Commission began recording the surviving castle. The officials of Imperial Russia made the decision to partially rebuild the castle ruins in 1905. A significant reconstruction project was initiated in 1946, with substantial work commencing in 1951–1952. 1961 saw the completion of the majority of the renovation. The castle was rebuilt in the manner of the fifteenth century. Today, Trakai Island Castle is a popular destination for tourists. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
25-May-2024 03 am
 

 In Chepstow, Monmouthshire, Wales, Chepstow Castle is the earliest post-Roman stone stronghold still standing in Britain. The Norman Lord William FitzOsbern ordered construction to start in 1067, and the building is situated above cliffs on the River Wye. Originally called Striguil, it was the southernmost in a series of castles constructed in the Welsh Marches. In the 14th century, the nearby market town adopted the name of the castle along with its related lordship. The fortress played a key role in the Norman invasion of Gwent, the first autonomous Welsh state, in the twelfth century. Two of the most influential Anglo-Norman tycoons in mediaeval England, William Marshal and Richard de Clare, later possessed it. But by the sixteenth century, it had lost some of its military significance, and sections of its construction had been turned into home ranges. Re-garrisoned both during and after the English Civil War, it had become dilapidated by the 1700s. The castle gained popularity as a tourist site as tourism grew later on. The ruins were designated on December 6, 1950, as Grade I. Perched on a short ridge between the limestone river cliff and a valley on its landward side usually referred to as the Dell, lies Chepstow Castle. The best view of its entire span is from the opposite side of Wye River. Four baileys have been added to the castle during the course of its history. Despite this, the castle lacks both a circular plan and a powerful keep, making it weak defensively. Rather, the numerous baileys display the chronology of its development, which is often divided into four main stages. The first comprehensive investigation on architecture of Chepstow started in 1904, and 1955 account of Perks was long regarded as the definitive one. The specifics of these phases have been updated in recent research, but the general framework remains the same. #Castles #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
24-May-2024 03 am
 

Located in Rome, Campus Martius of Italy, next to the Theatre of Marcellus and the Porticus Octaviae, is the Temple of Apollo Sosianus, a Roman temple devoted to Apollo. Gaius Sosius, the last person to reconstruct it, is credited with giving it its current name. The location next to the theater is closely associated with the Apollinar and its offspring. All of these point to the location of the temple that is currently recognized: it is on the street that leads through the porta Carmentalis to the campus Martius, somewhat south of the current Piazza Campitelli, and just north of the theater and east of the porticus Octaviae. The three fully intact columns of the temple date back to the Augustan rebuilding, but the cult of Apollo was practiced in the region at least as early as the middle of the fifth century BC, when the site of an altar or holy grove known as an Apollinar was discovered. Apollo was a foreign cult, and as such, it was legally required to be situated outside the pomerium. As a result, extra-pomerial senate meetings were regularly held there. Prior to Augustus dedicating another temple on the Palatine Hill, this was likewise lone temple of Apollo in Rome. The first temple was constructed in 431 BC by consul Gaius Iulius Mento, who did it as a way to honor Apollo Medicus for keeping a vow he had made to him during the 433 BC plague. The censor Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and his associate awarded the contract to construct a porticus behind the temple of Spes, connecting the temple to the Tiber, around 353 BC, maybe as early as 179 BC. One of the other ambitions of the censor was a theater in the vicinity. There are no other temples dedicated to Apollo, therefore the three days that the cult-statue of the god cried, which was mentioned among the prodigies at the death of Younger Scipio, could only have happened here. A nearby temple honoring Diana, the sister of Apollo, was most likely constructed in the late Republic after the precinct of the Apollo temple was destroyed during construction on Marcellus-theater. Gaius Sosius started a comprehensive rebuilding shortly after his victory in 34 BC. The civil conflict between Octavian and Antony soon stopped these construction projects, and they did not pick up again until several years later after Augustus made amends with Sosius. As a result, it was ultimately dedicated to the name of the princeps, with September 23 serving as the dedication day during the Augustan period. The frontal stairway of the temple was destroyed and two staircases on the sides of the pronaos were built in its place shortly after Marcellus-theater was built. Following the Augustan periods, there are only a few minor restorations known, possibly by Anicius Acilius Fortunatus Glabrio in the 420s and by the urban prefect Memmius Vitrasius Orfitus between 356 and 359. When the Christian Emperors banned all forms of non-Christian worship and sanctuaries during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, the temple would have been shut down. Up until the 1930s, medieval homes were located on the temple-remains. These were destroyed between 1926 and 1932 to make room for Marcellus-theater to be viewed separately. The ruins of the platform were excavated in 1937 and 1938 as a result of those same activities recovering the colonnade-remnants inside the arches of the theater, where they had fallen. The fallen columns were raised on this platform in 1940, albeit most likely not in their original places. #History #Architecture

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@Historical Events
22-May-2024 04 am
 

A coalition of Germanic tribes ambushed three Roman legions led by Publius Quinctilius Varus and their auxiliaries in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, also known as the Varian Diesaster according to Roman historians. The battle took place somewhere near modern-day Kalkriese on September 8–11, 9 AD. Arminius, a Germanic officer in the auxiliary of Varus, was in charge of the coalition. Due to his acquisition of Roman citizenship and military training, Arminius was able to predict the tactical reactions of the Roman army and deceive the Roman commander with great skill. Teutoburg Forest is often regarded as one of the most significant losses in Roman history, abruptly ending the glorious era of conquest of Augustus. This fight is regarded as one of the most significant in European history because its conclusion convinced the Romans not to pursue their goal of capturing Germania. Following this, the provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior—sometimes referred to as Roman Germania—were founded in northeastern Roman Gaul, while areas south of the Rhine continued to be ungoverned by the Romans. Tiberius and Germanicus led successful retaliatory operations, although the Rhine would eventually serve as the boundary between the Roman Empire and the remainder of Germania. No further significant Roman invasion of Germania occurred until the reign of Marcus Aurelius, 161–180, during the Marcomannic Wars. Invading Rome in the fourth and fifth centuries were some of the later offspring of the vassal kingdoms, such as the Suebi that Augustus attempted to establish in Germania in order to grow the Romanitas and the Empire. #History

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@Heritage Architecture
22-May-2024 02 am
 

Eger in Hungary is home to the Eger Castle. It is renowned for having repelled the Turkish assault during the Siege of Eger in 1552. At Felsőtárkány, close to Eger, a high hill known as Várhegy was the site of the first castle. This fortress was destroyed in the Mongol invasion of 1241, and the bishop of Eger relocated it to a rocky hill in the city. A new castle was erected on the hill, and it grew quickly. A Gothic palace was constructed in 1470. The castle had 2,100–2,300 defenders when a Turkish army of 35,000–40,000 troops attacked it in 1552. The Turks sustained significant fatalities, and the siege failed. Only 1,700 of the defenders made it out alive. Following that, in 1596, Turks besieged the castle once more, which led to a Turkish triumph. Half of the castle was demolished by the Austrians in 1701. The army used the castle as barracks until 1957, and archeological digs did not begin until 1925. The castle is home to multiple museums. The Dobó István Vármúzeum displays the historical background of the castle. Egri Képtár has a show of paintings. A network of cellars beneath the castle is visible from the Kazamaták. Panoptikum is a wax museum. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
21-May-2024 04 am
 

One of the most recognizable châteaux in the world is the Château de Chambord at Chambord, Centre-Val de Loire, France. Its highly unique French Renaissance architecture, which combines classical Renaissance buildings with typical French medieval forms. Francis I, the king of France, built the structure. Built as a hunting lodge for Francis I, who kept his royal homes at the Château de Blois and Amboise, Chambord is the largest château in the Loire Valley. The Tuscan architect Domenico da Cortona is credited with creating the initial design of the château, however Leonardo da Vinci may have had some influence. During the 28 years of its construction, from 1519 to 1547, under on-site supervision of Pierre Neveu, Chambord saw significant changes. As the château was almost finished, Francis hosted Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, at Chambord to flaunt his huge emblem of riches and power. Following the French Revolution, some of the furniture was sold and the wood was taken out in 1792. The building was abandoned for a while, while some restoration efforts were conducted in the 19th century. Artworks from the Louvre and Château de Compiègne collections were transferred to the Château de Chambord during World War II. The sixteenth-century châteaux deviated from traditional castle design. In spite of the fact that they were derived from castles and had many of their characteristics, they lacked effective defenses. Large gardens and water features, such a moat, were typical of the châteaux of this era. This pattern also applies to Chambord. The design is similar to that of a conventional castle, complete with corner towers, a moat for defense, and a keep. Constructed in the Renaissance style, the interior design represents a pioneering instance of the French and Italian methods of dividing rooms into independent suites, which diverged from the medieval practice of connecting rooms with corridors. The enormous château is made up of four enormous bastion towers at each corner that encircle the center keep. Additionally, the keep is a component of the front wall of the compound, which has two larger towers. The back contains the bases for what could have been two more towers, but these were never built and are still the same height as the wall. There are 84 staircases, 282 fireplaces, and 440 rooms throughout the château. On each story, there are four rectangular vaulted passageways that create a cross. Currently accessible to the general public, the château welcomed 700,000 tourists in 2007. June 2016 flooding destroyed the gardens but spared the château  #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
20-May-2024 05 am
 

Dedicated to the deified emperor Hadrian in 145 CE by his adopted son and successor Antoninus Pius, the Temple of Hadrian is an ancient Roman building located on the Campus Martius in Rome, Italy. Originally called the Basilica of Neptune, this temple is now correctly recognized as the Temple of Hadrian, finished by Antoninus Pius. One cella wall and eleven columns from the exterior colonnade remain, and the remnants of the temple have been incorporated into a later structure in Piazza di Pietra. The seventeenth-century papal palace of Carlo Fontana, which is currently home to Chamber of Commerce of Rome, included the facade of the temple along with an architrave that was later rebuilt. Even though just a portion of the building survives, research and excavations have given us insights into its methods and stylistic influences, enabling us to reconstruct the relevance of Temple of Hadrian and building dynamics in Imperial Rome. Nearly ten years after death of Hadrian in 138 CE, Antoninus Pius, the succeeding emperor, dedicated this shrine in his honor in 145 CE. While no inscription remains to identify it as a Hadrian temple, his successor Antoninus Pius left an inscription in honor of him, which was included in the Regionary Catalogues with other monuments of the Hadrianic dynasty situated between the Pantheon and the Via del Corso. It appears that there was another significant temple precinct to the west, possibly belonging to Matidia, mother-in-law of Hadrian and her mother Marciana, older sister of Trajan, who were both deified after their deaths. Although there were no significant stylistic advancements in architectural schemes of Rome under the reign of Antoninus Pius, he did see to it that structures started or planned by his late predecessor Hadrian were completed. Eleven fluted columns with Corinthian bases and capitals, and one side of the cella wall that was incorporated into a nineteenth-century palazzo that still houses the Rome Borsa, are all that remain of the temple after it was abandoned long ago. The other side vanished as well. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
19-May-2024 05 am
 

Situated in the village of Carisbrooke on the Isle of Wight in England, Carisbrooke Castle is a historic motte and bailey castle. In the months leading up to his trial, Charles I was held captive at the castle. There may have been pre-Roman habitation on the site of Carisbrooke Castle. There may have been a building there in late Roman times based on the remains of a wall. Wihtgar, the cousin of King Cynric of Wessex, is said to have died in AD 544 and was buried there according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. By the late 7th century, the fort might have been occupied by the Jutes. The location was home to an Anglo-Saxon stronghold in the eighth century. In order to protect the hill against Viking incursions, a wall was constructed around it circa AD 1000. Family of Richard de Redvers owned the castle from 1100 until his descendants enhanced it with stone walls, towers, and a keep during the course of the following two centuries. Edward I purchased the castle in 1293 from the last Redvers inhabitant, Countess Isabella de Fortibus. From that point on, wardens, acting as delegates of the monarch, were given control over it. During rule of Richard II in 1377, the French attempted an unsuccessful raid on the fortress. The story goes that Peter de Heyno, a local hero, shot the French commander and saved it. In 1467, Anthony Woodville, the future Earl Rivers was granted the castle and the Lordship. During era of Henry I, the keep was erected to the castle, and during reign of Elizabeth I, Sir George Carey, who had been appointed Governor of the Isle of Wight in 1583, fortified it further when the Spanish Armada was anticipated. Later, Carey hired Federigo Giambelli, an Italian engineer, to strengthen the defenses even more. Beginning in 1597, Giambelli built a contemporary trace Italienne fortress that encircled the old castle and bailey entirely. It consisted of a squat rampart and ditch, periodically reinforced by strong bastions. Before his execution in 1649, Charles I spent fourteen months in prison here. Princess Beatrice, the daughter of Queen Victoria, lived there as the Governor of the Isle of Wight from 1896 until 1944. English Heritage is presently in charge of it. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
14-May-2024 03 am
 

Situated near the River Thames in Wallingford, in the English county of Oxfordshire, formerly Berkshire, Wallingford Castle was a prominent medieval fortress. It was originally built as a motte-and-bailey structure inside of an Anglo-Saxon burgh in the eleventh century. During the years of the Anarchy civil war, it was kept for the Empress Matilda and withstood several sieges before being taken. It evolved into an opulent castle over the following two centuries, used by nobility and their close relatives. The castle deteriorated after Henry VIII left it unoccupied as a royal residence. Being reconstructed during the English Civil War and being taken by Parliamentary forces following a protracted siege, it was ultimately slighted, or purposefully destroyed. After that, the site was mostly abandoned, and today the public can explore the substantial earthworks and the few remnants of the castle walls. Before the Norman invasion of 1066, Wallingford, a prosperous town with its own mint and a significant regional town overseeing a crucial crossing point on the River Thames, was protected by an Anglo-Saxon burgh, or town wall. The ruler of the town, Wigod of Wallingford, welcomed William the Conqueror to Wallingford and provided entertainment for him. The monarch quickly began building three important castles to assert authority over the Thames Valley, along with the royal castles of Windsor and Wallingford, following the conclusion of the first invasion: the baronial castle at Oxford, which was eventually given to the royal family. Wallingford Castle was most likely constructed in the years 1067–1071. Robert eventually gained a large portion of the property of his father-in-law, after marrying Ealdgyth, daughter of Wigod. With the motte along the river overlooking the ford, the wooden castle was constructed in the northeast corner of the town, making use of the original Anglo-Saxon ramparts. The new motte-and-bailey construction needed significant demolition work. Remarkably, the castle seems to have been built over affluent Anglo-Saxon dwellings, most likely formerly occupied by housecarls. The castle was strongly linked to King John toward the end of the 12th century. Richard I had given the town to King John in 1189. When John revolted in 1191, he also took control of the castle. He was compelled to surrender it, but when he became king in 1199, he took it back. Between 1215 and 1216, John used Wallingford Castle extensively, strengthening the defenses and raising a sizable garrison to keep it safe. In 1231, Richard, the 1st Earl of Cornwall, received formal permission to use the castle as his primary residence under Henry III. Later on, the castle served as a county jail as well, and many complaints were made regarding the amount of criminals who were able to get out of there. Towards the end of the fourteenth century, it became increasingly difficult to sustain the castle from local fees and revenues, and extra royal monies were needed for the continual maintenance that was needed on it. Nevertheless, the fortress was sturdy and well-defended when Richard II was overthrown in 1399. Wallingford Castle seems to have ceased to be used as a royal palace when Henry VIII used it for the last time in 1518. It had little significance in the Wars of the Roses. The 16th century saw the downfall of the castle; it was split off from the Duchy of Cornwall and, during the reign of Queen Mary, the site was cleared of lead and other building materials in order to be used at Windsor Castle. In the process, the castle was all but destroyed, though a brick structure was still in service as a jail in the eighteenth century. The bailey was first developed in 1700 with a sizable house, then in 1837 it was replaced with a gothic mansion house. In 1972, the mansion was dismantled owing to mounting expenses, which became Wallingford Castle a scheduled monument and a Grade I listed building. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
10-May-2024 10 pm
 

Located in the historical region of Inner Carniola in south-central Slovenia, Predjama Castle is a Renaissance fortress built inside a cave opening. It is situated in the Predjama settlement, about 9 kilometers from Postojna Cave and 11 kilometers from the town of Postojna. First recorded in German as Luegg in 1274, the Gothic-styled castle was constructed by the Patriarch of Aquileia. To make entry to the castle challenging, it was constructed beneath a naturally occurring rocky arch high in the stone wall. Later, the Luegg aristocratic family — also called the Knights of Adelsberg, the German name for Postojna — acquired it and enlarged upon it. The castle gained reputation as the home of the knight Erasmus of Lueg, a well-known robber baron and 15th-century castle lord. He was the son of Nikolaj Lueger, the imperial governor of Trieste. Legend has it that confrontation of the Erasmus with the Habsburgs began when he assassinated Marshal Pappenheim, the leader of the imperial army, for violating the honor of the late companion of Erasmus, the renowned condottiere Andrej Baumkircher of Vipava. Erasmus reached the Predjama family castle, fleeing the wrath of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. From there, he formed an alliance with King Matthias Corvinus and launched an assault on the Carniolan holdings and cities of the Habsburgs. Erasmus was to be killed or captured by the governor of Trieste, Andrej Ravbar, on the orders of the emperors. After a protracted siege, Erasmus was killed. A well-known but inaccurate legend states that Erasmus was shot from a cannon in his bathroom after one of his men betrayed him. The exit of the old castle is situated at the top of the cliff, 25 meters from the edge, and is reached via a vertical natural shaft that Erasmus had extended. This hole allowed Erasmus to continue his robberies and covertly supply the castle with food during the siege    #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
08-May-2024 05 am
 

The ancient Temple of Vesta in Italy, also known as the aedes, is located in Rome. It is situated next to the Regia and the House of the Vestal Virgins in the Roman Forum. The sacred fire of Vesta, a representation of security and wealth of Rome, was kept at the Temple of Vesta. The temple is a tholos because of its circular footprint. The building appears to pay respect to the layout of early Roman residences, which is fitting given that Vesta worship started in private households. Greek architecture is used in the current, dilapidated form of the temple, which features marble and Corinthian columns. There was a central cella that contained the sacred hearth. Twenty Corinthian columns were erected on a podium measuring fifteen meters in diameter, according to the remaining structure. The second Roman king, Numa Pompilius, constructed the original Temple of Vesta. Along with founding the priestly order of Vestal Virgins, he also constructed the original Regia and the House of the Vestal Virgins. There were six Vestals by the end of the Republic, compared to just two at first. The hearth goddess of Rome was called Vesta. The Romans thought that the fortunes of the city were intimately linked to her sacred fire, and that its extinguishment portended impending catastrophe for Rome. Even though it is commonly referred to as a temple, the location, orientation, and layout were not chosen by augury. As a result, it was referred to as a shrine—aedes in Latin. Temple of Vesta was unlike many others in that it had a rounded shape rather than a rectangular one. The ancient round house served as the model for the circular design of Vesta temples. According to some scholars, the domed roof of the Temple of Vesta represented the heavens, and the round footprint of the temple represented the earth. In order to strengthen the bond between fire of Vesta and the sun as sources of life, all temples dedicated to Vesta were round and had entrances facing east. As early as the seventh century BCE, religious activities were conducted at the Temple of Vesta. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
06-May-2024 05 am
 

The very well preserved Greek temple devoted to Hephaestus is the Temple of Hephaestus, and it is still almost completely intact today. Situated atop the Agoraios Kolonos hill, to the northwest of Agora of Athens, is a Doric peripteral temple. It functioned as Greek Orthodox church of Saint George Akamates from the 7th century until 1834. The history of the building for its various uses has contributed to its maintained state. Hephaestus was the deity of fire, workmanship, and metalworking. The area around the temple was dotted with metal-working and establishments of the potters, fitting for the honour of the temple. The monument known as the Theseion, or Temple of Theseus, was given this name in the present day due to the misconception that it contained the bones of the Athenian hero Theseus, who was brought upon the city from the island of Skyros by Kimon in 475 BCE. However, this was disproved when inscriptions found inside the temple strongly linked it to Hephaestus. Following the battle of Plataea, the Greeks vowed to leave their temples in ruins as a constant reminder of the conflict, rather than rebuilding the sanctuaries that the Persians had devastated during their invasion of Greece. The Athenians instead used their money to bolster their position in the Delian League and to reconstruct their economy. Upon assuming power, Pericles had a vision for turning Athens into the epicenter of Greek culture and authority. Although work on the structure began in 449 BCE, some academics estimate that it took an additional thirty years to finish because resources and labor were diverted to the Parthenon. The eastern frieze, the western pediment, and several internal building modifications are dated by these scholars to 435–430 BCE, primarily on aesthetic grounds. The western frieze finished between 445–440 BCE, over which period the statue of Athena Hephaistia had been introduced to the shrine adjacent to the cult statue of Hephaestus. Only between 421 and 415 BCE, during the Peace of Nicias, was the roof finished and the cult icons erected. A modest garden including pomegranate, myrtle and laurel trees and shrubs was grown around the temple during the 3rd century BCE. The temple would have been eventually shut down in the late Roman Empire when pagans were persecuted. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
04-May-2024 04 am
 

The Templo de Diana, also known as the Roman Temple of Évora, is a historic temple located in the Portuguese city of Évora. The temple is a component of the historic city-core, which UNESCO has designated as a World Heritage Site. It is one of the most important sites connected to the Portuguese and Roman civilizations in Évora and the Lusitanian region. The temple is thought to have been built in honor of Augustus, who was worshipped as a god both during and after his reign, sometime in the first century CE. Originally known as Liberalitas Iulia, the temple was constructed in largest public square of Evora. According to the commonly recognized chronology, the temple underwent structural modifications in the second and third century as part of a significant reconfiguration of the urban metropolis, when religious observance and political administration were centered on the central plaza. The Germanic invaders destroyed the temple in the fifth century. According to Fernão Lopes, the temple was in ruins and that its area was used as a stronghouse for the fortress of the town in the fourteenth century. Portuguese King Afonso V gave Soeiro Mendes permission to remove stones from the building in 1467 so that it may be used for defense and construction. During the Middle Ages, a tower of the Castle of Évora was built using the remnants of the temple. The temple-turned-tower was utilized as a butcher shop from the fourteenth century until 1836; this novel use of the temple structure helped protect its ruins from total collapse. The base, columns, and architraves of the temple were maintained imbedded in the walls of the medieval edifice. James Murphy recreated the form of the temple for the first time in 1789. The building still featured the pyramidal merlons that were typical of the Arabic constructions built around the colonnade after the Reconquista at the start of the nineteenth century. It stopped being a butchershop in 1836. Cunha Rivara, who was the director of Public Library of Evora at the time, received permission from the Portuguese Inquisition in 1840 to dispose of the structures attached to the monument. These houses were attached to the northern façade of the temple. These buildings were destroyed, and Portugal saw the start of the largest-scale archaeological dig. In 1869, Augusto Filipe Simões argued in favor of restoring the original façade of the Roman temple and suggested that the medieval buildings be urgently demolished. The remnants of the medieval constructions were eventually destroyed three years later, under the supervision of Italian architect Giuseppe Cinatti, and a restoration scheme that was keeping with the Romantic ideas of the time was executed.     #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
03-May-2024 05 am
 

Situated amidst 200 acres of deer park in County Durham, England, Raby Castle is a medieval stronghold close to Staindrop. John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, constructed it sometime between 1367 and 1390. This is the birthplace of Cecily Neville, the mother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III. Since the thirteenth century, the Neville family possessed the manor of Raby. Despite not having a legal title, the family began to be called to Parliament in 1295 under the title of Barons of Raby. John de Neville received permission from Thomas Hatfield, Bishop of Durham, in 1378 to fortify his land at Raby. Raby Castle was placed under royal protection in 1569 following the failure of the Rising of the North, spearheaded by Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland, in support of Mary, Queen of Scots. The Earls of Darlington and the Dukes of Cleveland erected an octagonal drawing room and an entry hall in the Gothic style after Sir Henry Vane the Elder bought Raby Castle and the nearby Barnard Castle from the Crown in 1626. They still go by Lord Barnard, but were the Dukes of Cleveland from 1833 to 1891. Both the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw a great deal of alteration. It is renowned for both the magnitude and its artwork, which includes portraits and pieces by historical masters. Following 1733, the poet Christopher Smart, who was just eleven years old at the time, would often visit there. At thirteen, he had a brief elopement with Anne Vane, the daughter of Henry Vane, the man who had inherited the Barnard title. The building, which is open to the public during certain seasons, is Grade I listed. The Vane family, the Barons Barnard, still resides at the castle, which is still a private residence. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
02-May-2024 01 am
 

In Jerash, Jordan, there is a Roman peripteral temple called the Temple of Artemis. Located in the center of the ancient city, the temple was constructed between the two tallest terraces of the sanctuary. One of the most impressive structures still standing in the Roman East and the old city of Gerasa is the temple. The patron goddess of the city, Artemis, was the Hellenistic interpretation of a native goddess who was probably revered before the Greek colonists arrived and brought the cult of Zeus Olympios to the city. Few inscriptions provide proof of an earlier Artemis sanctuary. Building on a new, larger sanctuary began in the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba uprising in AD 136. The temple was never finished, although the propylaeum was finished in AD 150, during the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius. There were intended to be six by eleven columns in the portico around the cella; however, only eleven of the 13.20 m-tall columns in the pronaos remain. The contractor Hygeinos, who was in charge of carving the column bases, shafts, and caps, signed the exceptionally well-preserved Corinthian capitals. Pieces of verde antico floor slab and the holes left by the clamps in the walls both attest to the polychrome marble cladding in the interior of the cella. There are two staircases that lead to the roof of the temple, a level area that is presumably utilized for ceremonies by the devotees. Edicts from the emperors outlawed the practices of pagan cults at the end of the fourth century. The whole marble cella cladding of the Artemis temple was removed, and the corniche of the gate was disassembled and rebuilt with simple jambs. The cella was transformed into a public reception area and covered in a polychrome mosaic floor. When the ceiling of the cella collapsed in the sixth century, the entire structure was altered, becoming a private residence fortress in the midst of a large artisanal district that took up the upper terrace of the sanctuary. The temple-buildings survived the 749 AD earthquake. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
30-Apr-2024 04 am
 

Located in Rome, Italy, the Temple of Saturn was an antiquated Roman temple dedicated to the god Saturn. At the westernmost point of the Roman Forum, its ruins are situated at the base of the Capitoline Hill. The original consecration of the temple is typically dated to 497 BC, yet the history of this location has long been disputed by ancient writers. Under Tarquinius Superbus, the temple-construction is believed to have started in the last years of the Roman Empire. After the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, it was inaugurated by the consul Titus Larcius during the early years of the Republic, making it the oldest Republican temple. Standing at the entrance of the temple, the altar of Saturn is believed to have been far more ancient and linked to establishment of the Capitoline Hill city by Saturn. Munatius Plancus rebuilt the temple from the ground up in 42 BC. Built following a fire in 360 AD, the Temple of Saturn is now in ruins, representing the third phase of its construction. The inscription that remains on the frieze honors this post-fire renovation. This reconstruction from the late 4th century is indicative of the pagan revivalism of the era. During the oppression of pagans in the late Roman Empire, the temple would have been shut down. Saturn reigned during the Golden Age of Roman mythology and remained a symbol of riches. The aerarium, or treasury, which held the gold and silver deposits of the Roman Republic, was placed in his temple. There were also government archives, authorized gauge for weighing metals, and emblems kept there. Afterwards, the archives were relocated to the adjacent Tabularium and the aerarium was moved to a new structure. Bills were posted on the travertine-covered concrete platform that served as the temple. The statue of the God within was cloaked and had a scythe, based on earlier cult representations of the deity. The picture was filled with oil and constructed of wood. Wool bands were placed over the legs, and they were only taken off on December 17, the day of Saturnalia. Family members shared gifts on this festive day. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
29-Apr-2024 03 am
 

The British royal family resides in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, at Balmoral Castle, a big estate house. Situated 50 miles west of Aberdeen and 9 miles west of Ballater, it is close to the village of Crathie. The Farquharson family sold the estate and its ancient castle to husband of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, in 1852. Not long after, it was discovered that the house was too inadequate, and the new Balmoral Castle was built. Prince Albert made changes to the architectural plans created by William Smith, an Aberdeen native. Balmoral does not belong to the Crown Estate; it is still the own estate of the monarch. Elizabeth II lived there over the summer until her death on September 8, 2022. Historic Environment Scotland has designated the castle as a category A listed building, showcasing Scottish baronial architecture. The previous castle was dismantled soon after the completion of the new one in 1856. The royal family has made modifications to the Balmoral Estate over the years, and it currently encompasses some 50,000 acres. It is a working estate with farming, forests, grouse moors, and herds of Highland cattle, sheep, and ponies under management. There was a hunting lodge here owned by King Robert II of Scotland, 1316–1390. Additionally, historical documents show that Sir William Drummond constructed a home in Balmoral in 1390. The estate was given to Charles Farquharson of Inverey, brother of John Farquharson, in 1662. James Farquharson of Balmoral participated in the uprisings in both 1715 and 1745, and the Farquharsons were Jacobite sympathizers. In 1746, he suffered injuries during the Battle of Falkirk. Following forfeiture, the Auchendryne Farquharsons inherited the Farquharson estates. James Duff, 2nd Earl Fife, bought Balmoral and rented the castle in 1798. The lease was obtained in 1830 by Sir Robert Gordon, a younger brother of 4th Earl of Aberdeen. He made significant changes to the existing Balmoral castle, including expansions in the baronial style developed by John Smith of Aberdeen. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
28-Apr-2024 04 pm
 

Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano is a titular church in Rome, Italy. The gateway to the upper level of the structure is located outside the Roman Forum, while the lower part of the building may be accessed inside the Forum and features genuine Roman buildings. The circular structure at the admission of the Forum, known as the Temple of Romulus, was likely constructed as a Roman temple in the early fourth century and may have been devoted to Valerius Romulus, the sanctified son of Emperor Maxentius. It currently houses a small archeological exhibition. Maybe the imperial forum library served as the principal structure. According to conventional wisdom, Emperor Maxentius erected the Temple in honor of his son and co-consul Valerius Romulus, who passed away in 309 and was granted celestial honors. The temple structure was likely a component of reconstruction program of astounding fervor of Maxentius, which he started after a devastating fire in 306; the project was only partially finished when he passed away. Based on the discovery of a coin dating to 307 AD that reveals the unique design of the structure and a nearby consecration to Valerius Romulus as a divinized mortal; thus the association of the temple with Valerius Romulus is provisional. There have also been speculative claims that the temple is a reconstruction of the ancient Jupiter Stator temple, or a Penates temple that Maxentius renovated. After becoming a church in 527, it has significant early Christian artwork that has been extensively repaired, particularly in its mosaics. It is currently one of the historic churches known as tituli, which the cardinals serve as cardinal-deacons. The basilica is situated in the Forum of Vespasian, sometimes referred to as the Forum of Peace, and is dedicated to the two Arabian Christian brothers, doctors, martyrs, and saints, Cosmas and Damian #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
27-Apr-2024 05 pm
 

Located in Luxembourg, is the Fischbach Castle. It is located in the heart of Luxembourg, close to Fischbach. All the castles in Luxembourg have a long history, but Fischbach has the longest. The estate of Fischbach was formerly owned by the Abbey of Echternach, which for many years was the most affluent organization in Luxembourg. According to records, the castle was taken over by the first liege who was independent of the Church in 1050 A.D. Throughout the Thirty Years War, the castle underwent numerous modifications and adjustments, including total devastation in 1635. Auguste Garnier, a metallurgist and industrialist who held the castle during the second quarter of the 19th century, converted the estate into an industrial hub by erecting blast furnaces there. When Grand Duke William II acquired the land in 1847 to strengthen his political grip over Luxembourg and appease the local public following the Belgian Revolution, he became the first head of state to hold the castle. He instantly gave the order to destroy the blast furnaces at Garnier. When the personal union between the Netherlands and Luxembourg came to an end in 1890, Grand Duke William III sold Fischbach Castle to Duke Adolphe of Nassau, who would later become Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Grand Duchess Charlotte continued to reside at Fischbach for the remainder of her reign even after the complete restoration of Berg Castle and the Grand Ducal Palace. She stayed at Fischbach right up to her death in 1985, despite having abdicated in 1964. Prince Henri and Princess Maria Teresa moved into the palace two years after Charlotte passed away, where they remained until Henri succeeded his father, Jean, as Grand Duke in 2000. Grand Duke Jean spent his final days in Fischbach on April 23, 2019. After spending a year in London, Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume and Hereditary Grand Duchess Stéphanie relocated to Fischbach Castle in late 2019 #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
25-Apr-2024 03 pm
 

In the Lazio region of central Italy, Genzano di Roma is a town and comune that is part of the Metropolitan City of Rome. It is one of the Castelli Romani, located in the Alban Hills 29 kilometers from Rome. There is ongoing debate over the etymology of the name name Genzano. In one account, the settlement sits atop a hill overlooking Lake Nemi that was previously dedicated to the goddess Cynthia, whose cult was linked to Diana Nemorensis. Other account attributes its genesis to the Gentiani lineage. Rich Roman residents who wanted to take advantage of the pure air, pure water, and milder summer temperatures of the area, settled there as early as the Roman Republican era. The vicinity is home to numerous historic Roman villa remnants. The walls of the Villa of the Antonini, the birthplace of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius,138–161 AD, are the most remarkable. This is where the Herculean Sarcophagus of Genzano was discovered and is now housed at the British Museum. The location of a tower belonging to the Genoese Gandolfi family, lords of Castel Gandolfo, dates back to the twelfth century. It was given to the Cistercian monks of St. Anastasius of Aquae Salviae in Rome by Pope Lucius III in 1183. Around a massive castle they constructed in 1235, the town subsequently expanded. The Popes gave it to Giordano Orsini in 1378. Genzano was alternately held by the Colonna and the Cistercians until 1563, when the Massimi received the castle in exchange for 150,000 scudos, and Giuliano Cesarini later purchased it. As there are two towns in Italy named Genzano, it was decided in 1873 to rename the town as Genzano di Roma in order to prevent misunderstanding with the postal service. It was the epicenter of multiple peasant uprisings in the 19th and early 20th centuries. During World War II, Allied bombing severely damaged it, destroying ninety percent of its buildings. It was selected, along with the City of Rome, as one of the shooting locations for Fast and Furious 10 in 2022 #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
24-Apr-2024 05 am
 

In Arundel, West Sussex, England, there is a medieval castle that has been renovated and restored. In the eleventh century, Roger de Montgomery founded it. Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk, repaired the castle in the 18th and 19th centuries after it was devastated during the English Civil War. The Earls of Arundel and the Dukes of Norfolk have called the castle their home since the eleventh century. The building is categorized as Grade I. It was once a motte-and-bailey castle. The King gave Roger de Montgomery the estate as part of a much bigger bundle of hundreds of manors, and he was proclaimed the first Earl of Arundel. Roger, the cousin of William the Conqueror, had remained in Normandy to maintain order while William was away in England. He received large territories in the Welsh Marches, throughout the nation, and a fifth of Sussex as compensation for his allegiance. Around 1067, he started construction on Arundel Castle. Robert of Bellême, the owner of the castle, rebelled, and between 1101 and 1102, the army of Henry I besieged the fortress. The castle gave itself over to the king at the end of the siege. The fortress was under siege in 1643, during the First English Civil War. After eighteen days, the 800 royalists within submitted. Later, in 1653, Parliament mandated that the castle be slighted. Nonetheless, it is thought that weather likely caused greater damage. Over the ensuing decades, the Howard family kept ownership of the castle, but it was not their preferred home. Instead, the several Dukes of Norfolk dedicated their time and resources on enhancing other ducal properties, such as Norfolk House in London. It was at this time that Francis Hiorne was commissioned by the Duke to build the folly that still exists on the hill above Swanbourne Lake. Queen Victoria spent three days at Arundel Castle in 1846 with her husband, Prince Albert. The castle was internally remodeled by Henry Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk, just in time for her visit. The furniture design was created by the architectural firm Morant. During this period, a suite of six rooms was constructed on the second floor of the southeast range. Following the 1846 royal visit, the 15th Duke started rebuilding the castle once more, and he did so from 1875 until 1905. By early 2020, the large gardens had undergone substantial restoration thanks to the work of head gardener Martin Duncan and his team. Duncan, a landscape designer and horticulturist, has been employed at the Castle since 2009. He was awarded the Kew Guild Medal in 2018. A wild water garden encircling the ponds is the result of the most recent efforts of the gardeners and volunteers #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
23-Apr-2024 10 pm
 

The Radziwiłł family residence is in Nesvizh Castle, also known as Nyasvizh Castle, in Nyasvizh, Belarus. At 183 meters above sea level, it is located. Constructed during the 16th and 17th centuries and occupied by the Radziwiłł family until 1939, the castle and the adjacent Corpus Christi Church played a significant role in shaping the architectural styles of Central Europe and Russia. The church, the castle, and the immediate vicinity were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2005. After the Kiszka family vanished in 1533, the estate was given to Mikołaj Radziwiłł and his brother Jan Radziwiłł, bringing the Radziwiłł magnate family ownership to the estate. The Lithuanian Metrica was transferred there in 1551 because the Radziwiłłs were among the most prominent and affluent clans in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The estate became an ordynacja in 1586. Following the Union of Lublin, the castle rose to prominence as one of the most significant homes in the central region of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł, the Voivode of Trakai–Vilnius, the Marshal of Lithuania, and the castellan of Šiauliai began building an impressive three-story castle in 1582. The former defenses were completely transformed into a renaissance-baroque residence, despite the fact that the works were founded on a prior medieval castle framework. By 1604, construction was finished, and a few galleries were added fifty years later. Four octagonal towers protected the vertices of the château. The castle-defenses were breached and destroyed by troops of Charles XII in 1706, during the Great Northern War. A few decades later, the Radziwiłłs asked some architects from Germany and Italy to expand and extensively rebuild the castle. The two-story gatehouse tower was topped with a helm, and the 16th-century castle gates were also rebuilt. Around this period, the three distinct structures that surrounded the central courtyard were combined into one building. The Radziwiłł family was driven from the castle when Russian forces took control of it in the midst of the 1792 Polish–Russian War. The palace was abandoned over time, both by the Russian army and then by its original owners. Nonetheless, the Radziwiłł family restored it, and Prince Antoni Wilhelm Radziwiłł and his French wife Marie de Castellane remodeled the castle-interiors between 1881 and 1886. They also created an English-style landscape park. The park is one of the largest of its kind in Europe, spanning more than one square kilometer. The complex of castles is regarded as the most exquisite in Belarus. It was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2005. From 2004 to 2012, the castle complex underwent major restoration. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
23-Apr-2024 04 am
 

The Indian state of Rajasthan contains the city of Jaisalmer, home of the Jaisalmer Fort. Almost one-fourth of the inhabitants of the ancient city still live in the fort, making it one of the very few still living forts in the world, along with Carcassonne, France. The fort was home to the city of Jaisalmer for the majority of its 860-year existence. In order to cope with the expanding population of Jaisalmer, the earliest dwellings outside the fort walls are reported to have emerged in the seventeenth century. The second-oldest fort in Rajasthan, Jaisalmer Fort was constructed in 1156 AD by the Rawal (Ruler) Jaisal, from whom it gets its name. It was situated at the intersection of several vital trade routes, including the historic Silk Road. The huge walls of yellow sandstone that make up the fort are a tawny lion color during the day that fades to honey-gold as the sun sets, giving the fort a natural appearance amid the golden desert. Because of this, it is sometimes referred to as the Golden Fort, Sonar Quila, or Swarn Durg. Trikutgarh is another name for the fort, which is situated atop Trikuta Hill in the middle of the vast, sandy Thar Desert. Today, it is situated near the southern boundary of the city that bears its name. Because of its prominent hilltop location, the extensive defense-towers can be seen for kilometers in all directions. The fort is situated atop a hill that rises to a height of 250 feet above the surrounding farmland, measuring 1,500 feet long by 750 feet broad. In addition, the fort features four gates or reinforced entrances from the townside, one of which was formerly cannon-guarded. According to legend, the fort was constructed in 1156 CE by the Bhati Rajput Rawal Jaisal. According to the legend, it replaced an older structure at Lodhruva, which dissatisfied Jaisal. As a result, Jaisal erected the city of Jaisalmer, which served as the new capital. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
22-Apr-2024 05 am
 

Located in the historic Roman town of Pompeii, southern Italy, the Temple of Apollo, also called the Sanctuary of Apollo, is a temple devoted to the Greek and Roman God Apollo that was constructed in 120 BCE. The sanctuary was a public venue devoted to Greco-Roman religion and culture that was inspired by Roman immigrants. It is the most significant religious structure in the town and is situated in the forum, overlooking the northern side of the town. It was one of the two oldest temples constructed in Pompeii; the other was the Hercules and Minerva Temple, which stood close to the venue. Adopted from Greece, the cult of Apollo was popular throughout Campania and has been documented at Pompeii since the sixth century BCE, based on discoveries near the temple. The sanctuary was rebuilt in the second century BC, and additional work was done to fix the harm caused by the 62 earthquake, which caused much of the temple to fall apart, as well as any repairs that had not been finished at the time of the eventual eruption. These renovations are what gave the sanctuary its current form. The temple was encircled on all four sides by a broad row of Nocera tuff columns, which were initially grooved and had Ionic capitals. These columns were progressively being supplanted with stucco columns and Corinthian capitals that were painted in shades of yellow, red, and dark blue. The temple was situated in the middle of a holy enclosure. The temple itself was a peripteros with 48 Ionic columns, rising on a lofty podium and approached via a commanding flight of stairs that combined elements of Italic and Greek architecture. The cella is positioned unusually far back in relation to the peristyle. A white marble altar with a travertine base and a Latin inscription listing the names of the quattuorviri who dedicated it is still visible in front of the steps. An Ionic column on the side of the steps held a sundial and an inscription on a plaque provided by two magistrates who are also known to have given a seat and another plaque at the Triangular Forum. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
21-Apr-2024 02 am
 

Situated close to the remnants of Hadrians Wall in the city of Carlisle, Carlisle Castle is a stone keep medieval castle. The castle, which dates back over 930 years and was first constructed in 1092 under William II and reconstructed in stone under Henry I in 1122, has played host to numerous significant events in British history. A significant role was played by this castle in the English-Scottish wars. It has served as the epicenter of numerous invasions and conflicts. In 1745–1746, during the Jacobite Rising, Carlisle was the final English castle to be besieged. On August 7, 1996, the castle was placed on the Scheduled Ancient Monument list. The original construction of Carlisle Castle took place under William II, the son of William the Conqueror, who ruled England. Cumberland was still seen as a region of Scotland at the time. On the location of the ancient Roman fort of Luguvalium, which dendrochronology dates to 72 AD, William II ordered the erection of a Norman-style Motte and Bailey castle at Carlisle. Castle work started in 1092. Henry I of England gave the order to build a stone fortress with towers on the location in 1122. As a result, the city walls and keep were built. The current keep is from approximately 1122–1135. There are just 104 known examples of tower keep castles, the most of which are located near the Welsh border. In the process of expulsion of the Scotts from Cumberland, numerous attempts were made to reclaim the territory. As a result, during the following 700 years, Carlisle and its castle would pass through various hands numerous times. Carlisle Castle served as the crucial stronghold of the Western March, a buffer region designed to guard the western section of the Anglo-Scottish border, from the middle of the 13th century until the Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1603. The castle was considerably neglected after 1746, though some small repairs, like the restoration of the drawbridge in 1783, were made. In the nineteenth century, several portions of the castle were then destroyed and used as raw materials to build what is essentially what visitors see today. In August 1996, Carlisle Castle was placed on the register by Historic England. Using photogrammetric tools to document discoveries, Historic England conducted the first formal research into the medieval graffiti and carvings spread across the castle site in 2016. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Heritage Architecture
20-Apr-2024 03 am
 

Located in Piazza Bocca della Verità, the ancient Forum Boarium in Rome, Italy, is the Temple of Hercules Victor, also known as Hercules Olivarius. It is a Roman temple. It is a tholos, a circular temple with a colonnade encircling it and a Greek Peripteral style. Due to its layout, it was mistaken for a Vesta temple until Camille de Tournon, Prefect of Rome of Napoleon, made the precise identification. There is a folktale that says that neither dogs nor flies will be allowed into the Temple of Hercules, even though the Forum Boarium served as livestock market of Rome in antiquity. The temple is the oldest largely intact marble structure still standing in Rome and is the sole one composed of Greek marble. Built in the latter part of the 2nd century BC, either by Marcus Octavius Herrenus or L. Mummius Achaicus—the conqueror of the Achaeans and the annihilator of Corinth—the temple has a diameter of 14.8 meters and is made up of a circular cella surrounded by a concentric ring of twenty Corinthian columns. Nineteen of the twenty initial columns and the original travertine of the cella and marble block wall still stand; the tile roof that is currently in place was put in later. Ten columns in the temple were substituted with Luna marble in the first century AD, following some type of calamity. The marble was a close but not perfect reproduction of the predecessor. The temple was transformed into Santo Stefano alle Carozze, a church, around 1132. The temple was further transformed into a Christian church and dedicated to Santo Stefano by Innocent II in 1140. The church was re-dedicated to Santa Maria del Sole in the seventeenth century. The neighboring surface was reduced and the temple was renovated once more between 1809 and 1810. 1935 saw the temple being officially designated as an ancient monument, and in 1996 it underwent restoration. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
18-Apr-2024 03 pm
 

Discovered on Pagans Hill at Chew Stoke in the English county of Somerset, the Pagans Hill Roman Temple was a Romano-British type structure. Presumably dedicated to the god Mercury, the temple was originally constructed in the late third century and headed east. Second temple was constructed after the previous structure collapsed, but it too collapsed and fell into ruin. An interior screen was added in the last reconstruction, which took place after roughly 367 CE. The most current dateable coin was of Arcadius, 383–408, and was discovered at the location. The fifth century saw the fall of the last structure. The temple is located on what is appropriately called Pagans Hill, however the name of the road has no connection to the temple and is a more recent addition. This double-octagonal temple structure had an outside wall that formed an ambulatory, or enclosed passageway, and an interior wall that constituted the cella, or sanctuary. Each wall was roughly three feet thick. Two elements that Rahtz identified as buttresses were located alongside each wall; however, given their tiny size, it is more probable that they were pilasters. Together with the octagonal temple and sacred spring, the location created a sizable pilgrimage centre complete with lodgings for guests and residence of a priest. A peculiar sculpture of a dog wearing a collar was discovered in the well, which was located about 15 meters to the west of the temple footings, among other artifacts. A bucket and an unusual glass jar from the 7th century that were discovered in the well provide proof that the area was still in use after the Roman era. When the temple was first discovered in 1830, it was believed to have served as a beacon for indicating between nearby hill forts. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
17-Apr-2024 12 am
 

The Będzin Castle is located in the southern Polish city of Będzin. The wooden stronghold, which was built in the eleventh century, predates the forteenthth-century stone castle. It served as a crucial defense for the Polish Kingdom and, subsequently, for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The origins of Będzin village date back to the ninth century. The wooden fort in the area, which dates back to the eleventh century according to documents, was destroyed in 1241 during the Tatar invasion and then again reconstructed. The timber fortification was replaced by a stone castle during the reign of Casimir III the Great. As early as 1348, the stone castle was in use. Not long afterward, in 1358, the burgeoning trading settlement of Bytom was granted city powers under the Magdeburg Law. The castle was intended to serve as a military outpost on the southwest frontier of the Kingdom of Poland and later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was the furthest westward stronghold, designed to fend off any assault from Bohemian or Silesian areas toward Lesser Poland. The castle was visited in 1364 by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. Maximilian III, the Archduke of Austria, was imprisoned here in 1588 following his loss in the 1587–1588 War of the Polish Succession. The late 16th century saw the fortress fall into decay. The further devastation was caused by the fire in 1616 and the damage sustained during The Deluge in 1657. Although the stronghold was regularly restored, its significance diminished as frontiers of Poland and its ties with its neighbors changed. Following the division of Poland, Prussian rule over Będzin resulted in the Hohenzollern dynasty gaining ownership of the castle. The adjacent areas were given to the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 and the Congress of Poland in 1815. When a stone fragment squashed a bystander in 1825, the nearly collapsing castle was directed to be demolished. However, the castle was designated as a monument before any work was done on it. Count Edward Raczyński purchased the castle in the 1830s, had it largely renovated, and briefly placed a Protestant chapel therein. However, after Raczyński passed away in 1845, hopes to construct an academy or hospital there were shelved, and the castle once more fell into neglect. It was not until the Peoples Republic of Poland, from 1952 to 1956, that the castle was reconstructed and turned into a museum. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Monuments and Architecture
16-Apr-2024 10 pm
 

In the Angus region of Scotland, Glamis Castle is located next to the community of the same name. The Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne resides there, and it is a public residence. The Lyon family has resided at Glamis Castle since the fourteenth century, however the current structure primarily originates from the seventeenth century. The late Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother, grew up in Glamis Castle. On August 21, 1930, Princess Margaret, her second daughter, was born there. The grounds of the castle are listed on the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes of Scotland, a national listing of noteworthy gardens, and are safeguarded as a category A listed building. There are prehistoric remnants in the area around Glamis Castle. For instance, the Eassie Stone, a well-known Pictish stone with exquisite carvings, was discovered in a creekbed at the nearby village of Eassie. Malcolm II was assassinated in 1034 at the Royal Hunting Lodge in Glamis. The Macbeth character in the play by William Shakespeare stays at Glamis Castle, despite the fact that the real King Macbeth had no relation to the castle. A castle was erected at Glamis by 1372, as the husband of the daughter of the king, Sir John Lyon, Thane of Glamis, received the property from Robert II in that same year. Early in the fifteenth century, the castle was rebuilt as an L-plan tower house. Sir Patrick Lyon, grandson of Sir John, was given the title Lord Glamis in 1445. During the conflict between James V and the Douglases, John Lyon, 6th Lord Glamis, married Janet Douglas, daughter of the Master of Angus. Janet faced treason charges in December 1528 for transporting followers of Angus to Edinburgh. After that, she was accused of poisoning her late husband, Lord Glamis, who had passed away on September 17, 1528. She was eventually charged with witchcraft, and on July 17, 1537, at Edinburgh, she was executed by burning at the stake. After that, James V captured Glamis and made his home there for a while. Glamis was given back to John Lyon, 7th Lord Glamis, in 1543. Patrick Lyon, the ninth Lord Glamis, was made Earl of Kinghorne in 1606. He started the major development of the castle. Glamis was garrisoned by soldiers during the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Upon his return to the castle in 1670, Patrick Lyon, 3rd Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, discovered it was unusable. Up to 1689, repairs were made, and a sizable Baroque garden was created. The early 19th century saw the reconstruction of the south-west wing following a fire. The Dining Room is one of several interiors that also comes from the 18th and 19th centuries. The back of ten-pound notes printed by the Royal Bank of Scotland has included an image of the castle since 1987 #History #Architecture #Castles

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[Contents on Wikipedia is covered by -- Disclaimer -- [Wikipedia-Disclaimer-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:General_disclaimer ] [Contents in this Website is also covered by Disclaimer linked at the bottom of the Page]  [This article means no intellectual appropriation by any way and only wishes to contribute in sharing of knowledge]










@Monuments and Architecture
11-Apr-2024 07 pm
 

The castle ruin known as Pontefract Castle is located in the English West Yorkshire town of Pontefract. It is believed that King Richard II passed away there. It saw several well-known sieges during the English Civil War in the seventeenth century. Built in around 1070, Ilbert de Lacy built the castle atop a rock above All Saints Church, to the east of the town, on property that William the Conqueror had given him in exchange for his assistance during the Norman Conquest. Nonetheless, there is proof that the location was occupied in the past. The castle was originally made of wood, but over time, stone was added. Ilberts Castle was mentioned in the Domesday Survey of 1086, most likely referring to Pontefract Castle. In the 12th century, Robert de Lacy was not present to assist King Henry I when he was fighting his brother for control of the castle. For the Honour of Pontefract, Roger de Lacy gave King Richard I 3,000 marks, but the King kept the fortress. In 1199, the year John came to the throne, his successor King John awarded de Lacy the castle. Eldest son of John, Roger, succeeded him after his death in 1213. Nevertheless, Castle Donington and Pontefract Castle were seized by the King. Up until the early 14th century, the de Lacy family resided in the fortress. During the tenure of the de Lacys, the beautiful multilobate donjon was constructed. The estates of the House of Lancaster inherited the castle by marriage in 1311. Six days following his defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 1278–1322, was executed outside the castle walls as a result of a sentence imposed on him in the great hall by King Edward II. Because of this, the earl was martyred and his tomb at Pontefract Priory was turned into a shrine. The third son of King Edward III, John of Gaunt, received it after Henry, Duke of Lancaster. He turned the castle into his own home and lavished enormous sums of money on renovations. On June 25, 1483 in Pontefract Castle, brother of Elizabeth Woodville i.e. Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers and her son Sir Richard Grey were murdered by Richard III. Thomas Darcy, 1st Baron Darcy de Darcy, the custodian of the castle, gave the castle to the organizers of the Pilgrimage of Grace, a northern English Catholic uprising against King Henry VIII, in 1536. Because the monarch considered purported surrender of Lord Darcy to be treasonous, he was put to death. The fortress was occupied by King Henry VIII of England, who arrived on August 23, 1541, as part of his summer royal tour of the North. King James visited Pontefract Castle on April 19, 1603, while traveling south to London, and spent the night at the Bear Inn in Doncaster. The castle was part of English jointure property of his wife Anne of Denmark. At the outset of the English Civil War, Pontefract Castle was under the control of Royalists. December 1644 saw the start of the first of three sieges, which lasted until March 1644, when Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale of Holme, came with Royalist reinforcements and the Parliamentarian army withdrew. Artillery and mining activities during the siege caused damage, which led to the collapse of the Piper Tower. Oliver Cromwell led the last siege of Pontefract Castle in November 1648. Charles I was put to death in January. The defenders at Pontefract reached an agreement, and on March 24, 1649, Colonel Morrice turned over the castle to Major General John Lambert. On March 27, Parliament issued an order directing that Pontefract Castle be completely destroyed, leveled to the ground, and its belongings sold off. Tearing down the castle slowly after the main organized activity of slighting may have added to its ruinous state. Nonetheless, visitors can still tour the 11th-century cellars of the castle, which were used for keeping military hardware during the Civil War [Information and Image Credit : Pontefract_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle ] [Image : Early 17th-century painting in the Pontefract Castle Museum by Alexander Keirincx] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The author died in 1652, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of author plus 100 years or fewer. This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1929. (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pontefract_Castle.jpg ] #History #Architecture #Castles










@Old World
08-Apr-2024 02 am
 

The Greek word for cavalry is hippeis. Following political reforms by Solon, the hippeus ranked second among the four social classes in ancient Athens. It was made up of guys whose yearly income was at least 300 medimnoi or comparable. As to the Timocratic Constitution, the mean annual income of the populace was below 200 medimnoi. This allowed the men who earned 300 medimnoi to buy and keep a war horse while they worked for the government. The Roman equites and the medieval knights were its equivalents. The hippeus served as the regal guard of honor in Sparta. There were three hundred young Spartans under thirty in it. Following the Greco-Persian War in the fifth century BC, the Athenian cavalry was established. Its initial strength was 300 soldiers, but after Golden Age of Athens, it grew to 1,200 soldiers. This comprised 1,000 Athenians and 200 mounted bowmen. In periods of peace, the hippeus kept drilling. They participated in processions at open-air festivities as well. The levy was overseen by two hipparchi who commanded them. Five phylarchi, each in charge of a phyla, were subordinate to each hipparch. The two top courses produced both sets of officers. The boule, or council, had the responsibility of ensuring that the cavalry was in excellent working order and screening incoming recruits for eligibility and equipment. The decision of the popular assembly set the number of riders to be deployed. Upon enlisting, each horseman was granted equipment funds and a subsidy for maintaining a groom and two horses; this eventually developed into an annual grant from the state totaling forty talents; nonetheless, regular compensation was only provided in the field [Information and Image Credit : Hippeis; Wikipedia]  [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippeis ] [Image : A black-figured Laconian cup by Rider Painter with a hippeus figure on it; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Jastrow (2006)] [The copyright holder of the work (Image), released the work into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: The copyright holder grant anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rider_BM_B1.jpg#History #Art










@Old World
06-Apr-2024 02 am
 

The Oxus Civilization, also known as the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex, is the contemporary archaeological classification for a specific Middle Bronze Age civilization located in southern Central Asia. Although some date the urban phase of the civilization, known as the Integration Era, to between 2400 and 1950 BC, others place the era between 2250 and 1700 BC. The majority of the urban sites of BMAC are actually found in Margiana, contemporary Turkmenistan, on the Murghab river delta, and in the Kopet Dagh mountain range, despite the civilization being known as the Oxus civilization and appearing to be centered on the upper Amu Darya or Oxus River in Bactria. A few later sites from between 1950–1450 BC can be found in northern Bactria, which is now southern Uzbekistan; however, the majority of these sites are tombs associated with the Sapalli civilization, which is related to the BMAC. In what is now northern Afghanistan, in southern Bactria, there is a solitary BMAC site called Dashli. Even though they are modern with the primary BMAC sites in Margiana, the sites located farther east in southwestern Tajikistan are merely cemeteries with no connected urban development. At Jeitun, there is archeological proof of Neolithic settlement in the well-watered northern foothills of  Kopet Dag. Mud brick homes were initially inhabited in this area between around 7200 and 4600 BC, during the Early Food-Producing Era, commonly referred to as the Jeitun Neolithic. The people living there were farmers from southwest Asia, who raised wheat and barley together with herds of goats and sheep. The crops that are usually associated with irrigation in dry environments—like hexaploid bread wheat, which became prominent during the Chalcolithic period—were grown by farmers at the late Neolithic site of Chagylly Depe more and more. The Regionalization Era commences in Anau IA, following a pre-Chalcolithic phase in the Kopet Dag piedmont region between 4600 and 4000 BC. The Chalcolithic period then unfolds in Namazga I–III, Ilgynly Depe, and Altyn Depe between 4000 and 2800 BC. The Namazga III phase, in Altyn Depe in the Kopet Dag region, spanned approximately 3200–2800 BC and demonstrated a late Chalcolithic society at the start of the Late Regionalization Era. The Kopet Dag oases in the Altyn-Depe site established a proto-urban community during the Early Bronze Age, which occurred between 2800 and 2400 BC, toward the conclusion of the Late Regionalization Era. The Kopet Dag piedmont, Margiana, and southern Bactria were the three primary areas where urban development peaked during the Middle Bronze Age, sometimes referred to as the Integration Era. Some cemetery ruins have also recently been discovered in southwest Tajikistan. The Kopet Dag piedmont, Margiana, and southern Bactria were the three primary areas where urban development peaked during the Middle Bronze Age, sometimes referred to as the Integration Era. Some cemetery ruins have also recently been discovered in southwest Tajikistan. The sedentary people that lived in the BMAC farmed wheat and barley under irrigation. The complex displays many of the characteristics of civilization, including colossal architecture, bronze tools, ceramics, and jewelry made of semiprecious stones. The complex bears similarities to the proto-urban towns of Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley, Harappa and Mundigak in western Afghanistan located in the Helmand basin, and Shahr-e Sukhteh in eastern Iran. The earliest evidence of wheeled transport in Central Asia is represented by models of two-wheeled carts discovered at Altyn-Depe in approximately 3000 BC, however model wheels may have originated from contexts that date somewhat older. Based on the kind of harness, carts were originally drawn by bulls or oxen. But inside the BMAC, camels were domesticated. At Altyn-Depe, a model of a camel-drawn cart from approximately 2200 BC was discovered. The Bronze Age agrarian civilization is reflected in the fertility goddesses known as Bactrian Princesses, crafted from limestone, chlorite, and clay. Additionally, the vast collection of metal objects indicates a highly developed metalworking technique. The members of BMAC culture  were expert metalworkers, dealing with copper, silver, gold, and bronze among other metals [Information and Image Credit : Bactria–Margiana_Archaeological_Complex] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bactria%E2%80%93Margiana_Archaeological_Complex ] [Image : As stated in the Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, the extent of the BMAC; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Dbachmann at English Wikipedia] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BMAC.png ] #History #Art










@Monuments and Architecture
05-Apr-2024 12 am
 

The first and most significant temple of Rome devoted to the Magna Mater, also known as the Great Mother, or Cybele as the Greeks called her, was called the Temple of Cybele or the Temple of Magna Mater. It was constructed to hold a specific image or form of the goddess, a meteoric stone that was briefly placed in the Palatine temple of goddess of Victory and brought to Rome in 204 BC at the request of an oracle from Greek Asia Minor. On April 11, 191 BC, the proscenium of the new temple hosted inaugural Megalesia celebration of Magna Mater. Situated on the elevated western flank of the Palatine, the temple had a commanding view of the Circus Maximus valley and faced the Ceres-temple situated atop the Aventine mountains. The flattened space, or proscenium, below, where the festival sports and plays in honour of the Goddess were staged, was reached by a long flight of steps rising higher. From the proscenium as well as the inside of the temple, one could see the goddess-altar. After the first temple burned down in 111 BC, a Metellus—possibly Gaius Caecilius Metellus Caprarius—restored it. In the early Imperial Empire, it burnt twice more, but Augustus rebuilt it each time, the second reconstruction being arguably the more opulent of the two. A figure of Cybele enthroned with lion attendants and a turreted crown sits atop the steps. This is in line with a massive, broken statue of the goddess that was discovered inside the temple grounds. Up to the late 4th century, the temple was still in operation [Information and Image Credit : Temple_of_Cybele_(Palatine), Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Cybele_(Palatine) ] [Image : Magna Mater Temple on a relief currently displayed at Villa Medici of Rome; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Sailko]  [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Controfacciata_di_villa_medici,_rilievi_romani_13_victimarii_conducono_un_bue_e_al_Tempio_della_Magna_Mater_sul_Palatino_(ara_gentis_Iuliae)_2.jpg#History #Art #Architecture 










@Monuments and Architecture
04-Apr-2024 02 am
 

Rome, Italy is home to the ancient Roman temple known as the Temple of Portunus. It was constructed next to the Forum Boarium, the ancient Roman cattle market connected to Hercules, which was next to the Pons Aemilius, the oldest stone bridge over the Tiber River and oldest river port of Rome. Given that there were multiple other temples in the vicinity in addition to Portunus, the exact dedication is still unknown, but it was most likely made in honor of the gateway deity. It is still more often known by this name despite being mistakenly labeled as the Renaissance Temple of Fortuna Virilis. Of all the Roman temples, this one is among the best preserved. It is the primary temple in the city devoted to Portunus, the deity of keys, doors, animals, and therefore granaries. The temple was transformed into a Christian church honoring Santa Maria Egyziaca throughout the Middle Ages. Up until the early 20th century, it was still a church. However, at that time, it was deconsecrated, all later alterations removed, and its classical aspect was restored as an archeological monument. As part of its repair, nearby buildings from the Renaissance and Middle Ages were demolished. Located in the historic Forum Boarium by the Tiber, the Ionic Temple had a commanding view of the Tiberine harbor during antiquity, where Portunus kept watch over cattle barges arriving in the city from Ostia. The temple was renovated between 120 and 80 BC, having been constructed in the third or fourth century BC. Its rectangular structure, which is still intact, is made up of a tetrastyle portico and cella, erected on a high podium that is accessed by stairs. Its pronaos portico, which has two columns deep and four Ionic columns across, is reminiscent of the Maison Carrée in Nîmes. The columns of the portico are free-standing, while the four columns at the back and the other five on the long sides are half-columns that are positioned against the walls of the cella  [Information and Image Credit : Temple_of_Portunus, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Portunus ] [Image : Temple of Portunus in the Forum Boarium; Wikipedia-Image-Author : WikiRomaWiki]  [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ]  [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Temple_of_Portunus.jpg ] #History #Art #Architecture 










@Monuments and Architecture
01-Apr-2024 08 pm
 

Situated in the Beqaa Valley in Lebanon, the Temple of Bacchus is a part of the Baalbek archeological site. The temple complex was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1984 and is regarded as an exceptional archaeological and artistic example of Imperial Roman architecture. One of the most magnificent and well-preserved Roman temple remains is this monument to Bacchus. Although its exact age is unclear, its exquisite decoration may be traced back to the second century CE. The Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, who ruled from AD 138 to AD 161, most likely ordered the temple. The site was unknown until the Greeks conquered it in the fourth century, by which time the temple had probably closed because of the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire. Not until 1898–1903 did a German mission start excavating two of the larger temples and rebuilding the area. The Lebanese government ordered the preservation of the site and renovations in 1920 following the proclamation of the State of Greater Lebanon. Protection of the site was discontinued after the Lebanese civil war broke out in the mid-1970s and Al-Biqā turned into a stronghold for Syrian and Palestinian forces. The Baalbek ruins were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1984. After the war ended in the 1990s, the place started to be preserved. Measuring 66 meters in length, 35 meters in width, and 31 meters in height, the temple is marginally smaller than the Temple of Jupiter. The temple is situated on a podium that runs east-west. A colonnade of forty-two unfluted Corinthian columns with Ionic bases, nineteen of which remain intact, adorns the periphery wall. Inside, two levels of niches on either side are flanked by Corinthian pilasters that adorn the cella. Even upto the sixteenth century, the gateway itself remained intact. Numerous archaeological excavations and studies on The Temple of Bacchus and the complete temple complex have been conducted by the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute. Research and evaluation of the site are ongoing. Examples include recording sculptures and reliefs, studying the fauna found in the ruins through the lens of archaeozoology, and examining urban growth and its connection to Baalbek [Information and Image Credit : Temple_of_Bacchus, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Bacchus ] [Image : Temple of Bacchus; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Jan Hilgers] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Baalbek_Baccustempel.jpg ]   #History #Art #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
30-Mar-2024 01 am
 

Located in the southern French city of Nîmes, the Maison carrée is one of the best-preserved Roman temples still standing in the former Roman Empire. It is a caesareum, a medium-sized Augustan provincial temple of the Imperial religion. The Maison carrée was re-dedicated to Gaius and Lucius Caesar, the adoptive grandsons and heirs of Augustus who both passed away at a young age, in the years 4-7 AD. In the Middle Ages, the inscription honoring Gaius and Lucius was erased from the temple. Nonetheless, in 1758, a scholar from the area named Jean-François Séguier managed to piece together the inscription by counting the holes on the front frieze and architrave, which were used to hold the bronze letters that were attached with protruding tines. Victor Grangent helped the temple gradually regain its former splendor during the 19th century. Despite using the Corinthian order, the Maison carrée resembles a Roman temple in the Tuscan style as described by the contemporary Roman architect Vitruvius. The neoclassical Église de la Madeleine in Paris, the St. Marcellinus Church in Rogalin, Poland, and the Virginia State Capitol of  United States—designed by Thomas Jefferson, who had a stucco replica of the Maison carrée made while serving as minister of France in 1785—were all influenced by the Maison carrée. The Maison carrée of Nîmes was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in September 2023  [Information and Image Credit : Maison_carrée, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maison_carr%C3%A9e ] [Image : Front view of the Temple; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Fabhuard] [Image Availed Under  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maison_carr%C3%A9e_(3).jpg#History #Art #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
29-Mar-2024 07 pm
 

Henry VIII built Pendennis Castle, an artillery fort, in the vicinity of Falmouth, Cornwall, England, between 1540 and 1542. As a component of the Kings Device initiative, it safeguarded the Carrick Roads waterway at the mouth of the River Fal from French and Holy Roman Empire invasions. The earlier castle was surrounded by a ring of substantial stone ramparts and bastions by the end of the century to fend off the growing Spanish threat. The original, circular keep and gun platform was retained. Pendennis was held by the Royalists during the English Civil War and was only captured by Parliament in 1646 following an extended siege. After Charles II was reinstated in 1660, he restored the fortress, which had withstood the interregnum. Defenses of Pendennis were updated and modernized in the 1730s and 1790s because to persistent fears of a potential French invasion; the castle could have up to 48 guns during the Napoleonic Wars. In order to bolster these defenses, new, fast-firing guns were added in the 1880s and 1890s. An electrically driven minefield was also erected across the River Fal, controlled from Pendennis and St Mawes. After being rearmed during World War I but seeing no action, the castle was rearmed again during World War II and saw battle against German Luftwaffe aircraft. By 1956, however, the castle had become obsolete and was dismantled. The Ministry of Works took over management of the site, demolishing several of the more contemporary military structures and making it accessible to the public. English Heritage is in charge of running the castle as a tourist destination in the twenty-first century. Pendennis is regarded by the heritage organization Historic England as one of the best specimens of a post-medieval defensive promontory fort in the nation [Information and Image Credit : Pendennis_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pendennis_Castle ] [Image : 16th-century gun platform and keep; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Willhsmit] [The copyright holder of this work, have released this work into the public domain. This applies worldwide (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pendennis_Castle.jpg ] #History #Art #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
28-Mar-2024 03 am
 

The Heliodorus pillar is a stone column located in Besnagar, Madhya Pradesh, in central India. It was constructed in 113 BCE. Heliodorus dubbed the pillar the Garuda-standard, after the god Garuda. The pillar bears the common name Heliodorus, who served as an ambassador from Taxila to the Indian emperor Bhagabhadra on behalf of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas. The pillar bore a dedication to venerable Vāsudeva, the Deva deva, or referred to as the God of Gods and the Supreme Deity, written in Brahmi script. The pillar also exalts Bhagabhadra the Savior, the ruler of India. The column is a Stambha, signifying the union of earth, space, and heaven. It is believed to represent the cosmic axis and convey the cosmic entirety of the Deity. Alexander Cunningham made the discovery of the pillar in 1877. The pillar has been identified as a component of an ancient Vāsudeva temple site by two significant archaeological investigations conducted in the 20th century. Apart from sacred texts like the Bhagavad Gita, the Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions and the epigraphical inscriptions on the Heliodorus pillar have some of the earliest known writings of early Vaishnavism and Vāsudeva-Krishna devotion, and are regarded as the first archeological proof of its continued existence. One of the oldest surviving accounts of a foreign conversion to Vaishnavism, according to some, is the pillar [Information and Image Credit : Heliodorus_pillar, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliodorus_pillar ] [Image : Heliodorus pillar in Vidisha, India; Wikipedia-Image-Author :  Dilipkumarftii1977] [Image is availed under  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Heliodorus_pillar_(cropped).jpg ] #History #Art #Architecture 










@Monuments and Architecture
24-Mar-2024 11 pm
 

Knappogue Castle is a tower house in the parish of Quin, County Clare, Ireland. It was constructed in 1467 and extended in the middle of the 19th century. Now that the structure has been renovated, guided tours are available. Seán Mac Conmara, the son of Síoda Mac Conmara, constructed the original castle in 1467, and it is a fine example of a late medieval tower house. The fortress was converted into a headquarter of the MacNamara or Mac Conmara sect in 1571. Donnchadh Mac Conmara led the Irish Rebellion in 1641, and MacNamara had control of Knappogue during the 1640s Irish Confederate Wars. The castle was occupied by Arthur Smith between 1659 and 1661. Knappogue was given back to its MacNamara proprietors in 1660, following the restoration of the crown. The Scott family of Cahircon eventually purchased the castle in 1800 after Francis MacNamara, the High Sheriff of Clare in 1789, gave it to them. The Scott family then undertook extensive renovation and expansion projects. Baron Dunboyne, Theobold Fitzwalter Butler, purchased the castle in 1855. The Dunboyne family used it as their family seat. They carried out the restoration work of the Scotts, adding a drawing room, a long room, and a west wing with the doorway and clock tower. The East Clare Flying Column provided security for the Clare County Council meetings, which took place at Knappogue Castle during the War of Independence. The Quinn family acquired the castle in 1927 when the Irish Land Commission bought the Knappogue demesne. Then, in 1966, Mark Edwin Andrews, a former Assistant Secretary of the United States Navy, bought the castle and surrounding acreage in Houston, Texas. The castle thereafter reverted to much of its original 15th-century state, incorporating and preserving later modifications that documented the ongoing habitation of the castle. The castle was bought by Shannon Development in 1996. The castle now hosts guided tours and serves as a location for medieval feasts and weddings [Information and Image Credit : Knappogue_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knappogue_Castle ] [Image : Knappogue Castle; Wikipedia-Image-Author :   https://www.flickr.com/people/sitomon/ ] [Image is availed under  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Knappogue_Castle.jpg ] #Castles #History  










@Art of Architecture
18-Feb-2024 12 am
 

The Ballyloughan Castle is a deserted castle with one of the finest gatehouses of Ireland that is close to Bagenalstown. The architecture of the castle implies that it was constructed by a Norman lord about the year 1300 and was most likely deserted in the fourteenth century. The castle was inhabited by the Kavangh family toward the end of the 16th century, after which it was owned by the Bagenals and then, in the 19th century, by the Bruens. This ruined castle in County Carlow is now designated as a National Monument. There is still a twin-tower gatehouse, the hall, and the foundation if the corner towers from around 1300. In close proximity to Mount Leinster, Ballyloughan is situated at the western extremity of a glacier ridge. The walls of the castle, which are up to 50 feet high and 5 feet thick in some parts, have a roughly square shape. Although the majority of the characteristics of the castle are typical of building from the 13th century, there is no information available about its early history. [Information Credit : List_of_castles_in_Ireland ; Ballyloughan_Castle] [Wikipedia-LInk : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_castles_in_Ireland ] [Original Image Credit : Ballyloughan_Castle, Wikipedia] [Image : Derivative Art of Exterior of Ballyloughan Castle] [Original Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International; Author : VisionsofthePast ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property. The Derivative Image is shareable under the Same License)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Original Source-Image URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:02._Ballyloughan_Castle,_Co._Carlow.jpg ] #Architecture #Art










@Monuments and Architecture
12-Dec-2023 03 am
 

Located in city of Segovia, Castile and León, Spain, the Alcazar of Segovia is a medieval castle. It is one of the most well-known medieval castles in the world and one of the most popular tourist destinations in Spain. It has been there since at least the 12th century. In addition to housing twenty-two monarchs and other prominent historical figures, it has served as the backdrop for important historical events. Above the meeting point of the rivers Eresma and Clamores, the fortress is perched atop a rocky crag at the western extremity of Old City of Segovia, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985. Since being designated as a National Archive by a Royal Decree in 1998, it is currently in use as a museum and a military archives building. It has also served as a military academy, a state jail, and a Royal Artillery College on occasion. The Alcazar was a royal residence and a stronghold for the Castilian kings. Its architecture is a remarkable example of Power Architecture and reflects the majesty of the building; its formidable walls, its deep moat, its towers, which include the Homage and Juan IIs, and its advantageous location all denote strength and authority. In addition, the extravagance and elegance of the interior, featuring elaborately furnished chambers and coffered ceilings, were intended to surprise and overwhelm guests, so enhancing the power of the Kings of Castile. In a similar vein, the history of Alcazar has been greatly influenced by the stories and traditions surrounding it. Even though it has a harsh, defensive look, Alcazar of Segovia has also been a center of everyday living. Its halls have seen the upbringing of numerous princes, nobility, and infants, whose presence has softened the exterior of the palace and made it feel like home to many. Its history started in the 12th or early 13th century, when the Alcazar, or Major Palace, served as the residence for the Castile royal family. The treasure of the Crown of Castile, which provided the money for the first expedition of Christopher Columbus, was kept in the Homage tower. Apart from that, the royal armory kept in the Alcazar was the model for the one currently on display in the Royal Armory of Madrid. Important occasions in Spanish history have taken place at the Alcazar, including the numerous Cortes of Castile and the signing of the Concord of Segovia, which established the foundation for the creation of the Spanish nation. Additionally, before the demise of the explorer, King Ferdinand the Catholic and Christopher Columbus had their final meeting there. The first military flight for military purposes took place in the 18th century, as the headquarters of the Royal College of Artillery, thus initiating military aviation [Information and Image Credit : Alcázar_of_Segovia, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alc%C3%A1zar_of_Segovia ] [Image : Alcazar of Segovia; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Ángel Sanz de Andrés] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Panor%C3%A1mica_Oto%C3%B1o_Alc%C3%A1zar_de_Segovia.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Old World
04-Dec-2023 05 pm
 

The mother goddess of Anatolia, Cybele, may have had an early Neolithic ancestor in Çatalhöyük. She was likely the national divinity of Phrygia and is the only goddess known to exist there. There is no extant tale or literature that describes the original nature or characteristics of the Phrygian cult of Cybele. She might have developed from a kind of statuary from Anatolia called Çatalhöyük, which dates to the sixth millennium BC and is thought by some to be a mother goddess. It depicts a corpulent, fertile female figure surrounded by big cats. The cult features of the Phrygian mother-goddess, seen in 8th-century BC Phrygian art, include attendant lions, a prey-bird and a little vase for her offerings or libations. Around the sixth century BC, Greek colonists in Asia Minor took up and modified her Phrygian cult, which they then brought to mainland Greece and the farther-flung western Greek colonies. Cybele had a mixed response when she arrived in Greece. She began to adopt characteristics of the harvest-mother goddess Demeter, the Earth-goddess Gaia, and her potential Minoan counterpart Rhea. Her most famous Greek ceremonies and processions portray her as an inherently alien, exotic mystery-goddess who arrives in a lion-drawn chariot to the accompaniment of wild music, wine, and an agitated, ecstatic following. However, some city-states, most notably Athens, invoked her as a protector. She held a eunuch mendicant priesthood, which was unique in Greek religion. Rituals to a divine Phrygian castrate shepherd-consort Attis, who was most likely a Greek fabrication, were part of many of her Greek religions. In Greece, Cybele came to be connected to mountains, city walls, lush surroundings, and untamed animals, particularly lions. Cybele earned the title Magna Mater or Great Mother, in Rome. Once the Sibylline oracle in 205 BC urged her conscription as a crucial religious ally in the second war of Rome against Carthage between 218 and 201 BC, the Roman state adopted and developed a specific form of her cult. Roman mythographers reinterpreted her as a Trojan goddess, and thus an ancestral goddess of the Roman people through the Trojan prince Aeneas. Romanized versions of the cults of Cybele spread throughout empire as Rome eventually consolidated dominance over the Mediterranean region. Greek and Roman writers argued and argued over the morality and significance of her cults and priesthoods, topics that are still contentious in contemporary scholarship [Information and Image Credit : Cybele, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybele ] [Image : Cybele in a chariot driven by Nike and drawn by lions toward a votive sacrifice (right); above are heavenly symbols including a solar deity, Plaque from Ai Khanoum, Bactria (Afghanistan), 2nd century BC; Gilded silver; Wikipedia-Image-Author : World Imaging assumed (based on copyright claims)] [The copyright holder of the work(Image), released the work into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: the copyright holder grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law. The work (Image) is also in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of author plus 100 years or fewer; (Please Relate to Original Image URL for More Usage Property) ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AiKhanoumPlateSharp.jpg ]   #History #Art










@Monuments and Architecture
03-Dec-2023 10 pm
 

Lismore Castle is a castle in the County Waterford of Republic of Ireland, situated in the town of Lismore. It was owned by the Desmond Earls until 1753, when it was passed down to the Cavendish family. The Duke of Devonshire now resides there in Ireland. The sixth Duke of Devonshire had it substantially rebuilt in the Gothic style in the middle of the 1800s. The location of the castle was originally occupied by Lismore Abbey, an important monastery and place of learning founded in the early 7th century. The castle was built in 1185 by Prince John of England, the Lord of Ireland, to secure the river crossing. When King Henry II of England came here in 1171, it was still an episcopal center. It was also the episcopal seat of the local bishop for a short while after 1185, when King John of England, his son, was tasked with erecting a castellum. It belonged to the Desmond earls, whose estates were divided up during the plantations when Gerald FitzGerald, the 14th earl of Desmond, was killed in 1583. Sir Walter Raleigh leased Lismore in 1589 and later bought it. Raleigh sold the land to Richard Boyle, another infamous colonial explorer who would go on to become the 1st Earl of Cork in 1620, while he was imprisoned for high treason in 1602. With just twenty-seven pounds when he arrived in the Kingdom of Ireland from the Kingdom of England in 1588, Boyle went on to build an incredible wealth. After acquiring Lismore, he turned it into his principal house and built an opulent mansion with striking gabled ranges on either side of the courtyard. In addition, he constructed the Riding Gate, a gatehouse with a castellated exterior wall. The main chambers featured velvet and silk embroidery, tapestry hangings, and plaster ceilings adorned with fretwork. The fourteenth of the fifteen children of the Earl, Robert Boyle, The Father of Modern Chemistry, was born here in 1626. Eventually, The 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork,1694–1753, commonly referred to as the Earl of Burlington in architectural histories, inherited the castle. He was a significant influence on Georgian architecture. After Lady Charlotte Boyle, the heiress and daughter of the 3rd and 4th Earls of Burlington and Cork, married the Marquess of Hartington in 1753, the castle was eventually acquired by the Cavendish family. The 4th Duke of Devonshire, who became the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1755, was born out of this marriage. Improvements at Lismore were carried out by their son, the 5th Duke, who designed the bridge over the River Blackwater in 1775. Thomas Ivory, an architect from Cork, was the architect for the original structure. The current appearance of the castle is a result of the work of the 6th Duke, also referred to as the Bachelor Duke. As soon as he succeeded his father in 1811, he set about converting the castle into a chic quasi-feudal ultra-regal stronghold. From 1812 to 1822, he hired architect William Atkinson to rebuild the castle in the Gothic style using cut stone that was transported from Derbyshire. The favorite home of the Bachelor Duke has always been Lismore, but as he got older, his affection for the area turned into a passion. Public access is available to the gardens situated within the castle. While much of the informal design of the lower garden dates back to the 19th century, the upper garden is a walled garden from the 17th century. The abandoned west range was transformed into Lismore Castle Arts, a modern art gallery, in 2005. The remaining interior space can be rented by parties of up to twenty-three people, but is not accessible to the general public [Information and Image Credit : Lismore_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lismore_Castle ] [Image : Lismore Castle, 2006 ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Raúl Corral] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lismore_Castle_(Lismore,_Co._Waterford).jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
25-Nov-2023 12 am
 

The Gothic-Renaissance Corvin Castle is located in Hunedoara, Romania, and is often referred to as Hunyadi Castle or Hunedoara Castle. One of the Seven Wonders of Romania, this castle is among the biggest in all of Europe. John Hunyadi, the Voivode of Transylvania, ordered the construction of Corvin Castle in 1446 with the intention of transforming the previous keep constructed by Charles I of Hungary. Sigismund of Luxembourg, king of Hungary and Croatia, first bequeathed the castle to father of John Hunyadi, Voicu, as a gift in 1409. John Hunyadi was chosen by the Diet to serve as the regent governor in 1446. The Knights Hall, the Diet Hall, and the circular stairway are the three main rooms of the castle. The halls are shaped like rectangles and have marble decorations. Feasts were held in the Knights Hall, while ceremonies and formal receptions took place in the Diet Hall. Following death of John Hunyadi in 1456, construction on the fortress ceased. New commissions were taken on to build the Matia Wing of the castle beginning in 1458. When construction on the castle was finally completed in 1480, it was acknowledged as one of the largest and most remarkable structures in all of Eastern Europe. The castle did not undergo any renovations in the 16th century, but in the 17th century, both military and decorative expansions were constructed. The grand new palace faced the town and was designed with aesthetics in mind. It was a two-story structure with residential quarters and a spacious living room. The White Tower and the Artillery Tower are two new structures built for military use. The outside yard was also created for administration and storage purposes. The present castle is the product of an imaginative restoration effort that was started following a catastrophic fire and several decades of complete disregard [Information and Image Credit : Corvin_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corvin_Castle ] [Image : Hunedoara in Romania ; Wikipedia-Image-Author: : Paszczur01;] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Romania ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ro/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hunedoara_castle.jpg ]  #Castle #History










@Monuments and Architecture
11-Nov-2023 09 pm
 

Located at Downhill, County Derry, Downhill House was a mansion constructed in the late 1700s for Frederick, 4th Earl of Bristol and Lord Bishop of Derry. Before it was reconstructed in the 1870s, a large portion of the structure was destroyed by fire in 1851. After World War II, everything started to fall apart. Currently, Downhill House is a component of Mussenden Temple and Downhill Demesne, properties owned by the National Trust. After being appointed Bishop of Derry in 1768, the Rt Rev. Dr. Frederick Hervey, Lord Bishop of Derry of the Church of Ireland, ordered construction at Downhill Demesne close to the community of Castlerock, in the early 1770s. Architect Michael Shanahan constructed Downhill House, which boasts a view of Benone and Downhill Strand on the northern coast of Northern Ireland. However, it has been speculated that Charles Cameron or James Wyatt may have also contributed to the design in its early stages. It is estimated that the building of the House and the adjacent Mussenden Temple cost £80,000. The Lions Gate, the original main entrance to the demesne, was actually guarded by two snow leopards, or heraldic ounces, the supporters of the Hervey shield of arms. The Bishops Gate took its place as the entryway in 1784. The interior of the house was adorned with statues and frescoes, as well as paintings by a number of well-known artists. Cousin of Lord Bristol, The Rev. Henry Bruce, who had served as the steward of the manor during the absences of the Earl-Bishop, inherited the estate upon his death in 1803. Sister of Bruce was Frideswide Mussenden, for whom the Mussenden Temple was constructed; following her passing, the temple was turned into a memorial. While Downhill was reported to have avoided substantial damage during the 1839 Night of the Big Wind, a fire in 1851 destroyed the library and seriously damaged a large portion of the house. Bishop Lord Bristol had built two houses, one at Downhill and the other at Ballyscullion, where he maintained his extensive collection of artwork. Artists such as Correggio, Dürer, Murillo, Rubens, and Tintoretto lost their works in the fire, however most of the paintings were reportedly spared. Under the direction of John Lanyon, the son of architect Charles Lanyon, the home was restored from 1870 to 1874, keeping many of its original characteristics while adding to its floorplan and interior design and changing some of its original arrangement. The property served as a billet for RAF personnel and women during World War Two. The home was owned by the Bruce family until 1946; by 1950, it had been demolished and the surrounding land had been sold. The temple became a Trust property in the 1940s, and the house was purchased by The National Trust in 1980 [Information and Image Credit : Downhill_House, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Downhill_House ] [Image : Downhill House ruins in 2006 ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Jean Smith from Bluewater Bay, Florida] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Downhill_House.jpg ] #History










@Legends and Myths
19-Sep-2023 07 pm
 

The goddess of untamed nature, forests, hunting, and the moon revered by the Western Slavs is Devana, Zevana, and less frequently Zievonya. Her reference in the sources dates back to the 15th century, when Jan Dugosz linked her to the Roman goddess Diana. She occasionally performs with Morana in folk rites. Verbascum, which is used to treat respiratory issues and for skin care, is also known as dziewanna in Polish. The closest Slavic analogs to nymphs, who serve as helpers of Artemis in Greek mythology, are boginki, which are indigenous to Western Slavs, primarily in Poland. Young females known as boginki live at the edges of reservoirs, forests, and caverns where they emerge at night, particularly on nights with the summer moon. They are mostly naked or clad in white. While caring for wild creatures, they frequently displayed hostility against people, particularly men. Their behavior was controlled by the moon, which was their deity. Boginki were also expected to use a bow for shooting. These characteristics of boginki nymphs could link them to Devana-Artemis, the moon and forest goddess. A few legends may refer to Devana, yet she does not actually appear in folklore outside of the sources indicated above. The tale of Łysa Góra, which was portrayed in Polish culture as the Polish Olympus, may be an allusion to Devana. Local lore claims that there was once a Gord or a castle on Łysa Góra before the monastery was constructed there. According to the folktale, the Proud Lady, who served the castle as her seat, and giants were supposed to build the castle. The Proud Lady, who would go on to defeat Alexander the Great, erred by being self-centered and claiming to be Diana. God could not take it and used lightning to level the castle. Sometimes Devana is identified as The Proud Lady [Information and Image Credit : Devana, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devana ] [Image : Devana by Andrey Shishkin, 2013] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for more Image Usage Property)] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-URL :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Devana_by_Andrey_Shishkin.jpg ]  #Mythology










@Legends and Myths
14-Sep-2023 10 pm
 

In Roman and Hellenistic religion, Diana is a goddess who is principally revered as the protector of the countryside, hunters, crossroads, and the Moon. Despite having an independent Italian origin, she is often compared to the Greek goddess Artemis and adopted much of the mythology of Artemis early in Roman history. She was born on the island of Delos to parents Jupiter and Latona and had a twin brother named Apollo. Diana is revered as a virgin goddess and a maternity protector. Diana once shared a trio of roles with the water nymph Egeria, who served as her attendant and assisting midwife, and the woodland god Virbius. Many contemporary neopagan cults, such as Roman neopaganism and Stregheria, honor Diana. Diana has been seen as a triple divinity throughout history, merging with a goddess of the moon, such as Luna or Selene, and the underworld, which is typically associated with Hecate. Persona of Diana is intricate and includes a number of antiquated elements. Diana was once thought of as a goddess of the wild and of the hunt, which was an important sport in both Roman and Greek culture. Diana was principally honored as a huntress and protector of hunters in early Roman inscriptions. Later, throughout the Hellenistic era, Diana came to be equally or even more venerated as a goddess of the tame countryside, or Villa Rustica, as opposed to the wild woods, which was often idealized in Greek thinking and poetry. The Greek goddess Artemis was the first to assume this dual role as the goddess of both civilization and the wild, and consequently of the civilized countryside. By the third century CE, when Greek culture had a significant impact on Roman religion, Diana had nearly completely merged with Artemis and had adopted many of her characteristics, both in terms of her spiritual realms and how she was described physically [Information and Image Credit : Diana_(mythology), Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diana_(mythology) ] [Image : Diana Hunting, Guillaume Seignac] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic ; Wikipedia-Image Author : Seignac, Diane chassant] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Seignac,_Diane_chassant_(5613442047).jpg ]  #Mythology










@Monuments and Architecture
12-Sep-2023 03 am
 

The Königsberg Castle served as a landmark for Königsberg, Germany, the capital of East Prussia, which later became Kaliningrad, Russia since 1946. The castle stood where an Old Prussian fort called Tuwangste once stood close to the Pregel River at a crucial crossing point in Prussian territory. Three Prussian villages in the area were later named —Löbenicht, Sackheim, and Tragheim. The Teutonic Knights replaced the Prussian fort with a temporary one made of earthworks and timber after capturing the area in 1255. By 1257, a brand-new Ordensburg castle made of stone was being built. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, the castle underwent numerous rounds of significant expansion and refortification. The Teutonic Order Grandmasters lived in the fortification, which eventually evolved into a castle, and Prussian emperors later made it their home. The splendid palace is described in the 1815 Encyclopaedia Britannica as having a handsome library and a hall that is 83.5 meters long and 18 meters wide without supports to support it. With 284 steps up to the summit and a height of almost 100 meters, the gothic tower of the castle offered panoramic views. This enormous structure, which was surrounded by a sizable quadrangle and was located virtually in the middle of the city, was once the headquarters of the Teutonic Order. In the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, it was expanded and changed. On the Schloßkirche, often known as the palace church, on the west wing, Frederick I was crowned in 1701 and William I in 1861. The Order of the arms of Black Eagle members were inscribed on the walls and columns. The 83 m long and 18 m tall Moscowiter-Saal was located above the church. The apartments of Hohenzollerns and the Prussia Museum were both accessible to the general public every day up until the end of World War II. The museum housed numerous paintings by the artist Lovis Corinth as well as 240,000 exhibits from the Prussian collection, a collection from the Königsberg State and University Library, and more [Information and Image Credit : Königsberg_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6nigsberg_Castle ] [Image : Königsberg Castle courtyard in c. 1900] [The Work (Image) is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1928. The author of this image from Switzerland is unknown, and the image was published at least 70 years ago. It is therefore in the public domain in Switzerland by virtue of Art. 31 of the Swiss Copyright Act. (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [ Art. 31 of the Swiss Copyright Act Link :   https://shorturl.at/dnQR3 ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:K%C3%B6nigsberg_Castle_courtyard.jpg ]  #History #Castles #Architecture










@MythoSphere
11-Sep-2023 10 pm
 

Abundantia, also known as Abundita or Copia, was a deity who represented wealth and abundance in the religion of the ancient Romans. Abundantia is Latin for plenty or wealth. This name is appropriate since Abundantia was a goddess of wealth, abundance, luck, fortune, valuables, and success. She would aid in safeguarding your investments and savings. Abundantia would even help with significant purchases. She was one of the religious depictions of virtue that portrayed the emperor as ensuring Golden Age conditions. Thus, Abundantia appears in literature, worship, and art but has little actual mythology. She might have survived in some capacity in medieval France and Roman Gaul. Thus, Abundantia appears in literature, worship, and art but has little actual mythology. She might have survived in some capacity in medieval France and Roman Gaul. Abundantia would go with a cornucopia loaded with grain and money. She occasionally left some of her grain or cash as a gift at home of someone. In the legend of Acheloüs, the river deity, whose horn Hercules tore from his forehead, the Augustan poet Ovid gives Abundantia a role. The Naiads took the horn and turned it into the cornucopia they gave to Abundantia. She was equated with Annona, who represented the grain supply, and Ceres on Neronian currency. Different aetiological myths offer diverse theories for the origin of the cornucopia. Abundantia was a virtue in action in places like the waterfront, where grain entered the city, similar to Annona. She is shown on Roman coins either holding the cornucopia or emptying it of the richness of its contents. On rare occasions, she is shown standing on a ship or holding a stalk of wheat. What her presence on ships denotes is uncertain. This can represent the wealth that the Roman Empire gained via its conquests. The deity is seen sitting and holding a cornucopia as a representation of the affluence that stems from act of Mithras in Mithraic imagery on a vase from Lezoux in the Roman province of Gallia Aquitania. A Pompeii fountain also included an image of Abundantia. Numerous medals of emperors feature Abundantia as those of Trajan, Antoninus Pius, Caracalla, Elagabalus, Severus Alexander, Gordian, Decius, Gallienus, Tetricus, Probus, Numerian, Carinus, Carus, Diocletian and Galerius, to name a few [Information and Image Credit : Abundantia, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abundantia ] [Image : A painting of Abundantia made by Peter Paul Rubens] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The author died in 1640, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of author plus 100 years or fewer. The Work (Image) is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1928. (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peter_Paul_Rubens_-_Abundance_(Abundantia)_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg ]  #Mythology










@MythoSphere
10-Sep-2023 04 am
 

In the play Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, Queen Mab—the midwife of fairies—is mentioned as a fairy. Later, she makes appearances in other works of poetry and fiction as well as in drama and film under various guises. In the play, she is a tiny creature who plays nighttime pranks on sleeping people, as described in a famous monologue by Mercutio that was originally written in prose and frequently modified into iambic pentameter. She rides her chariot over their noses while being propelled by a team of atoms, bringing the imaginations of sleeping men. She is also referred to as a midwife who assists those who are sleeping in giving birth to their dreams. She has generally been represented in later works as the Fairy Queen. Shakespeare may have taken the name Mab from tradition, but this is debatable and there are many hypotheses as to where it came from. According to a well-liked hypothesis, Mab is descended from Medb, a legendary queen from Irish poetry from the 12th century. The little dream-bringer Mab, however, stands in stark contrast to the powerful warrior Medb. Other writers, like Wirt Sikes, asserted that Mab is derived from the Welsh word mab, which means son or child, although detractors criticized this claim for lacking evidence. A link to Habundia, also known as Dame Habonde, a goddess occasionally referred to as a queen in medieval times and associated with witches, is also postulated [Information Credit : Queen_Mab, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Mab ]  [Image : Queen Mab, illustration by Arthur Rackham (1906)] [The work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of Author plus 70 years or fewer. The work (Image) is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1928. (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:110_Queen_Mab,_who_rules_in_the_Gardens.jpg ]  #Mythology










@Heritage and Geographical Sites
02-Sep-2023 06 pm
 

In the English county of Somerset, Glastonbury Tor is a tor that is close to Glastonbury and is topped by the Grade I-listed, roofless St. Michaels Tower. The location is administered by the National Trust and is a scheduled monument. The Tor has a number of other enduring mythological and spiritual links. It is mentioned in Celtic mythology, particularly in narratives involving King Arthur. The Somerset Levels give way to a conical mound of clay and Blue Lias. It developed as a result of the erosion of nearby softer layers, which revealed the hard sandstone cap. The slopes of the hills are terraced, but the process by which they were created is still a mystery. Neolithic flint tools found at the summit of the Tor indicate that the area has been occupied since prehistory, maybe for an extended period of time. When the nearby ruins of Glastonbury Lake Village were discovered there in 1892, it was established that an Iron Age settlement had existed there between 300 and 200 BC on an easily guarded island in the fens. Although there is no proof that the Tor was inhabited permanently, discoveries like Roman pottery do indicate that it was frequented. The history of the monument and church was attempted to be clarified through archaeological digs during the 20th century, although some details of this history are still unknown. Iron Age to Roman-era artifacts from human visitation have been discovered. On the peak, there were a number of structures built during the Saxon and early medieval eras that have been identified as an early church and hermitage of monks. An ancient head of wheel cross from the tenth or eleventh century has been found. The stone Church of St. Michael was erected on the site in the fourteenth century after the earlier wooden church was destroyed by an earthquake in 1275. Although it has been repaired and partially rebuilt numerous times, the tower still stands [Information Credit : Glastonbury_Tor, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glastonbury_Tor ] [Image : Terraces on the Tor; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Rodw;] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported ; [(Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glastonbury_Tor_from_north_east_showing_terraces.jpg ] #History #Architecture










@Rituals and Customs
14-Aug-2023 01 am
 

Myths, tales, and folklores of numerous cultures all involve dogs in some way. Dogs frequently act as pets or watchdogs in mythology. Dog guarding the gates of the afterlife tales are common in Indo-European myths and may have their roots in Proto-Indo-European religion. Some of these have to do with the relationship between dogs and the star Sirius, the union of humans and dogs, and the gatekeeping mentioned above in Indo-European mythology. There is evidence to support a relationship between the genetic and prehistoric records of dog domestication and the mythical heritage of many societies. For the Aztec people of central Mexico, dogs held significant religious and symbolic meaning. The Aztec god of death, Xolotl, was shown as a monster with head of a dog. One of the 12 animals revered in Chinese astrology is the dog. Chinese people frequently remember to treat dogs nicely on the second day of the Chinese New Year since it is believed that all dogs celebrate their birthdays on that day. Dogs are revered in China, Korea, and Japan as loving protectors. A dragon-dog named Panhu changed into a man and wed a princess. Yama, the Hindu god of death, is the owner of two four-eyed watchdogs. They are reported to keep watch over gates of Naraka (Hell). The Vahana, or mount, of Hindu god Bhairava is a dog. Many Hindus have the widespread notion that caring for or adopting dogs can also open the door to paradise because Yudhishthira in Mahabharata had traveled to heaven with his dog, Yama, who was the god himself. Dogs are discovered to have a sacred significance and figure as an essential symbol in religious imagery, but the Ancient Egyptians are more frequently connected with cats in the form of Bastet. Anubis, the jackal-headed god of the underworld, was associated with dogs. Dogs were occasionally interred in the Anubieion tombs at Saqqara during their time in use. Anput was the wife of Anubis, and she was frequently shown as a jackal carrying a child, breastfeeding a baby, or brandishing a weapon. In the classical era, Hecate was strongly related to dogs. For Artemis and Ares, dogs were sacrosanct. The three-headed, dragon-tailed watchdog Cerberus stands guard at the entrances to Hades. In Greek myth, a dog named Laelaps existed. The protection of Zeus was entrusted to a dog known only as the Golden Hound when he was a little child. In Christianity, dogs stand for loyalty. Specifically within Roman Catholicism, the iconography of Saint Dominic has a dog since the mother of the saint dreamed of a dog emerging from her womb and soon thereafter became pregnant. The patron saint of dogs according to the Roman Catholic Church is Saint Roch, who lived in France in the early 14th century. The dog is revered in Zoroastrianism as a particularly good, pure, and virtuous creature that has to be fed and cared for. The dog is commended for the helpful tasks it completes around the house, but it is also thought to possess unique spiritual qualities. Similar to Hinduism, dogs are associated with Yama, who uses them to guard the gates of the afterlife [Information Credit : Dogs_in_religion, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dogs_in_religion ] [Image : AI Generated Image of Dogs as Angels]  #Mythology










@Old World
16-Jul-2023 03 am
 

Roman mystery religion Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries or the Cult of Mithras, was based on the god Mithras. The Roman Mithras is associated with a new and distinctive imagery, with the degree of continuity between Persian and Greco-Roman practice being disputed, despite being inspired by Iranian worship of the Zoroastrian god (i.e., yazata) Mithra. From around the first through the fourth century CE, the mysteries were a favorite among the Imperial Roman troops. The seven levels of initiation and shared ceremonial meals were part of a complicated system used by Mithras worshippers. Syndexioi, those -- United by the Handshake, was the name given by initiates. They met in one of the several Mithraea, or underground temples, that still exist today. The worship is thought to have originated in Rome and spread throughout the western half of the empire, including Roman Africa and Numidia in the south, Roman Dacia in the east, Roman Britain in the north, and to a lesser extent Roman Syria in the east. Early Christianity is perceived as competing with Mithraism. Christians later persecuted Mithraists throughout the fourth century, and by the end of the century, the religion had been outlawed and suppressed in the Roman Empire. Throughout the Roman Empire, numerous archaeological discoveries, including gathering sites, monuments, and artifacts, have added to our current understanding of Mithraism. The most well-known images of Mithras depict him emerging from a rock or dining with the god Sol, or the Sun. There would have been at least 680 mithraea in Rome, according to estimates. Limited information may be gleaned from the inscriptions and fleeting or passing references in Greek and Latin literature; no written narratives or theology from the religion have survived. The interpretation of the tangible evidence is still up for debate [Information and Image Credit : Mithraism, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithraism ] [Image: Mosaic (1st century CE) depicting Mithras emerging from his cave and flanked by Cautes and Cautopates (Walters Art Museum)] [Image : The work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of Author plus 100 years or fewer. This work has been released into the public domain by its author, Walters Art Museum. Walters Art Museum grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law] [Wikipedia-Image-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_-_Fragment_of_a_Mosaic_with_Mithras_-_Walters_437.jpg ]   #History










@Art , Artwork and Artists
26-Jun-2023 02 am
 

The Ormside Bowl is a mid-eighth-century Anglo-Saxon double bowl made of gilded silver and bronze with glass that may have been Northumbrian. It was discovered in 1823 in Great Ormside, Cumbria, presumably buried close to a Viking warrior, however the specifics of the discovery were not properly documented. If that is the case, the warrior probably robbed York before getting burried with the bowl. One of the greatest examples of Anglo-Saxon silverwork to be discovered in England is the bowl. The bowl is a two-piece double-shelled cup that is joined by dome-headed rivets and beaded collars. The exterior of the bowl is embellished using the chased repousse technique. The bowl was altered into a drinking vessel at some point after it was created. A blue glass and silver stud is welded to the interior cup, which is composed of gilt-bronze. There are five more rivets, of which the centre one is missing, and 16 round pieces of glass surrounded by a ring of cloisons on the base plate of the internal bowl. The gilding of the bowl was applied after the other decorations. Given that a blue-glass stud matching the inner bowl was discovered in York, the inner bowl may have been produced there. The rim previously featured a U-shaped strip of ungilded silver, but this has mostly been gone. The outer shell is constructed of silver-gilt. Four animal head-shaped clips were used to attach this strip at first, but two of them have since vanished. The exterior of the bowl is carved with intertwined Anglo-Saxon-styled strange animals amidst Continental-style vines; some of the frontal gazes of the creatures are typical in carvings of this kind. These ornaments depict plants, grapes, fruit, animals, and birds in bizarre and lifelike ways. Five dome-shaped rivets can be seen on the external base plate. The bowl may have formerly had a foot-ring constructed of wire that has been gold-plated [Information and Image Credit : Ormside_bowl, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ormside_bowl ] [Image : The base of the Ormside bowl ; Wikipedia Image Author : Jmiall] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported (Please Relate to Original Image URL for more Usage Properties)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia–Image-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ormside_bowl_british_museum_left.JPG ] #Art










@Rituals and Customs
30-Apr-2023 07 pm
 

The Gaelic May Day festival is known as Beltane. It is customarily celebrated on the first of May, which falls around halfway between the spring equinox and summer solstice of northern hemisphere. In Gaelic Ireland, the name of the festival is interchangeable with the month that ushers in summer. In the past, it was frequently observed on the Isle of Man, Scotland, and Ireland. The celebration day is known as Lá Bealtaine in Irish. Early Irish literature makes reference to Beltane, which is connected to significant moments in Irish mythology. Cattle were driven to the summer pastures at the start of the season, also known as Cétshamhain, or -- First of Summer. Rituals were carried out to promote growth and to safeguard livestock, people, and crops. It was customary to start special bonfires whose flames, smoke, and ashes were believed to have protective properties. The people and their animals would pass by bonfires or walk around them, occasionally leaping over the embers or flames. The Beltane bonfire would be used to relight all home fires after they had been extinguished. A feast would accompany these reunions, and some of the food and beverages would be offered to the Aos Sí. Yellow May flowers would be used to adorn doors, windows, byres, and livestock—possibly because they represent fire. A May Bush is often a thorny shrub or limb that has been decorated with flowers, ribbons, brilliant shells, and rushlights in some regions of Ireland. While Beltane dew was believed to bring beauty and preserve youth, holy wells were also frequented. In some regions of Great Britain and Europe, many of these traditions were a part of May Day or Midsummer festivals [Information Credit : Beltane, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beltane ] [Image : Artistic Imagination of Beltane Festival] #Mythology










@Art , Artwork and Artists
30-Apr-2023 01 am
 

The fresco named the Bull-Leaping Fresco; 1675-1460 BCE. Of several stucco panels that were originally positioned on the upper story of the east wall of the palace at Knossos in Crete, the bull-leaping fresco has undergone the most extensive restoration. It depicts a sight of a bull leaping. Despite being frescos, they were painted on scenes of stucco relief. They were challenging to make. Along with the elevation of the panel, the artist had to simultaneously mould and paint brand-new stucco. Therefore, the panels do not depict the early stages of the approach. Their polychrome colours, including -- white, pale red, dark red, blue, and black -- prevent them from the Early Minoan (EM) and early Middle Minoan (MM) Periods in Minoan chronology. In other words, they are examples of -- Mature Art -- produced no earlier than MM III. The motif appears frequently in Minoan art and is just one of many that show bulls being handled. There are more pieces than are visible in the well-known reconstruction, and there may have been more than one instance of bull-leaping [Information Credit : Bull-Leaping_Fresco, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bull-Leaping_Fresco ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. License -Link : https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.en ] [(Kindly Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [Wikipedia Source Image URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bull_leaping_minoan_fresco_archmus_Heraklion_(cropped).jpg ] #Art 










@Art , Artwork and Artists
30-Apr-2023 12 am
 

Cave paintings from Lascaux caves (Montignac, Dordogne, France). In the Dordogne area of southwest France, close to the commune of Montignac, is the Lascaux network of caverns. The inside walls and ceilings of the cave are covered with more than 600 parietal wall paintings. The paintings mostly feature huge creatures, indicative of the surrounding current fauna and consistent with the local Upper Palaeolithic fossil record. The paintings are the result of the work of many generations, and after much dispute, their age is now typically considered to be around 17,000 years  [Information Credit : Lascaux , Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lascaux ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported ] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [(Kindly Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [Wikipedia Source Image URL :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lascaux_painting.jpg ] #Art










@Art , Artwork and Artists
30-Apr-2023 12 am
 

The history of visual art in Europe is included in what is known as Western art, or art of Europe. Between the Palaeolithic and the Iron Age, mobile Upper Palaeolithic rock and cave painting and petroglyph art were the origins of European prehistoric art. Often, written accounts of European art start with the 3rd millennium BCE Aegean civilizations. The Ancient Greek art, which Rome inherited and modified before spreading it throughout most of Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia with the Roman Empire, does, however, reveal a constant trend of aesthetic evolution within Europe. Over the course of the next two thousand years, the influence of the art of the Classical period fluctuated, appearing to fade into obscurity in some areas of the Mediaeval period, reappearing in the Renaissance, experiencing a period of what some early art historians perceived as -- Decay -- during the Baroque period, reappearing in a more refined form in Neo-Classicism, and then resurfacing in Post-Modernism. Several stylistic periods that historically overlapped each other as various styles developed in various regions are used to categorise European art. Classical, Byzantine, Mediaeval, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical, Modern, Postmodern, and New European Painting are the major historical periods [Information and Image Credit : Art_of_Europe , Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_of_Europe ] [Image : Apelles painting Campaspe, an artwork which shows people surrounded by fine art; by Willem van Haecht; c. 1630; oil on panel; height: 104.9 cm, width: 148.7 cm; Mauritshuis (The Hague, the Netherlands) ] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The Work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of author plus 100 years or fewer. The photographic reproduction is also considered to be in the public domain in the United States (Kindly Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [Wikipedia Source Image URL :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Willem_van_Haecht_(II)_-_Apelles_painting_Campaspe_-_2.jpg#Art










@Legends and Myths
29-Apr-2023 03 am
 

Laelaps of Greek mythology was a canine hunter who was always successful. In a particular version of the legend surrounding Laelaps, it was a present given to Europa by Zeus. The hound was given to King Minos, who later gave it to the Athenian princess Procris as a reward. In a different telling of her tale, the Goddess Artemis gave her the animal as a gift. Cephalus, spouse of Procris, made the decision to use the dog to pursue the Teumessian fox, a fox that was impossible to capture. A dog who consistently got its prey and a fox that was elusive presented a conundrum. Zeus, bewildered by their disparate fates, hurled them both into the stars as the constellations Canis Major, or Laelaps, and Canis Minor, or the Teumessian fox, after continuing the pursuit  [Information and Image Credit : Laelaps_(mythology) , Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laelaps_(mythology) ] [Image : Laelaps, a depiction from Death of Procris in detail] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The Work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of author plus 100 years or fewer. The photographic reproduction is also considered to be in the public domain in the United States. (Kindly Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [Wikipedia Source Image URL :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Piero_di_cosimo,_morte_di_procri_03.jpg ] #Mythology










@Legends and Myths
25-Apr-2023 03 am
 

In Greek mythology, Europa was the mother of King Minos of Crete and a Phoenician princess of Argive Greek descent. She may have inspired the name of the continent of Europe herself. It is thought that the legend of her kidnapping by Zeus in the form of a bull is a Cretan tale. Europa first appears in literature in the Iliad, which is generally regarded as having been written in the eighth century BCE. Another early mention of her can be found in a section of the Oxyrhynchus-found Hesiodic Catalogue of Women. According to the Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Zeus decided to seduce Europa because he was in love with her. He became a friendly white bull and blended in with the herds of her father. Europa saw the bull as she and her companions were collecting flowers, stroked his flanks, and eventually climbed up onto his back. Zeus seized the chance, dashed into the water, and swam to the island of Crete while carrying her on his back. Europa became the first queen of Crete after Zeus disclosed his actual identity. She received gifts from Zeus which included a necklace created by Hephaestus, the Greek God of Blacksmiths, a bronze robot guard named Talos, a javelin which never missed and a hound named Laelaps who never failed to catch his quarry. Later, Zeus reshaped the white bull into what is now known as the constellation Taurus in the heavens. The Raptus myth, also known as The Seduction of Europa and The Abduction of Europa, was incorporated into Roman mythology, although Zeus was replaced there with Jupiter! [Information and Image Credit : Europa_(consort_of_Zeus), Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europa_(consort_of_Zeus) ] [Image : The Abduction of Europa by Rembrandt, 1632] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The author died in 1669, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of Author plus 100 years or fewer. The work (Image) is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1928. (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [Wikipedia Source Image URL :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_-_The_Abduction_of_Europa_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg ]   #Mythology










@MythoSphere
06-Apr-2023 04 am
 

In Eastern Baltic mythology or Yotvingian mithology, the Latvian Lauma, Lithuanian Laumė, or Yotvingian Łauma is a fairy-like woodlands spirit and the protector spirit of orphans. Her empathy for human misery led her to come to earth to experience our fate after being a sky spirit in the past. The oldest deities in Lithuanian mythology are called Laumės. These goddesses-representation may have developed during the Mesolithic era, which succeeded the Ice Age. Laumės could take the appearance of mares, female goats, bears, or dogs, among other animals. Later, took on an anthropomorphic aspect, typically having bird claws for feet and looking like ladies with a head of goat or lower body. Additional variations included half-mare, like centaurs, or half-dog or like half-humans. Laumės frequently possessed just one eye, like cyclops. They also possessed huge breasts with stone nipples, which were known as nipples of Laumės because pieces of belemnitida were often found on the ground. They were like the Lamia of Greek mythology in that they could tickle or tweak people to death and then devour their corpses. The Lithuanian legend also said that maintained enormous cows that anyone could milk. Pieces of belemnitida were thought to be the remains of udders of cows until they perished in extremely cold temperatures. Iron tools were feared by the Laumės. One could indeed think of Laumės as atmospheric deities. It is also stated that Laumės was a lovely goddess with a diamond throne who resided in the clouds. According to some tales, Laumės was the bride of thunder god Perkūnas, but their union was never consummated because Laumės fell in love with the Moon, who was regarded as a male god in Lithuania [Information Credit : Lauma, Wikipedia;  Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lauma ] [Image : Artistic Imagination of Lauma and consequent Derivative Art] #Mythology










@Monuments and Architecture
20-Mar-2023 03 am
 

The Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt constructed the Lighthouse of Alexandria, also known as the Pharos of Alexandria, during the rule of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who lived from 280 and 247 BC. Its total height is thought to have been at minimum 330 feet. It was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and the tallest man-made edifice in the world for many centuries. Between 956 and 1323 AD, three earthquakes heavily affected the lighthouse, which eventually turned into a deserted remnant. After the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the still-standing Great Pyramid of Giza, it was the third longest-lasting ancient wonder. It continued to exist in portion until 1480 A.D., when the final of its remaining stones were taken to construct the Citadel of Qaitbay on the site. Pharos was a little island located on the western side of the Nile Delta. On an isthmus facing Pharos, Alexander the Great established Alexandria in 332 BC. Later, a mole—a substantial and mostly stone structure used as a pier, breakwater, or causeway between two bodies of water—was erected to connect Alexandria with Pharos. On the west side of the mole was the port of Eunostos, with its inner basin Kibotos now much enlarged to become the contemporary harbour, and on the east side was the Great Harbour, now an open bay. The lighthouse was was built in the third century BCE. The first Ptolemy established himself as king in 305 BC, following the demise of Alexander the Great, and shortly afterward ordered the construction of the lighthouse. It took twelve years and 800 talents of silver to erect the structure, which was completed under the rule of his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus. The tower was claimed to have been constructed primarily out of solid slabs of limestone and granite, and the light was emitted by a furnace at the top. On a dive into Eastern Harbour of Alexandria in 1994, a group of French archaeologists found several lighthouse remnants on the ocean floor. The Pharos and other underwater ancient Alexandrian ruins were part of plans for becoming an underwater museum in 2016 by the Ministry of State for Antiquities of Egypt [Information and Image Credit :: Lighthouse_of_Alexandria, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lighthouse_of_Alexandria ] [Image : Lighthouse of Alexandria by Philip Galle; 1572, Rijksmuseum] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The Work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of Author plus 100 years or fewer. The Work (Image) is believed to be in Public Domain in the United States as well. (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URLs for More Usage Properties)] [Wikipedia Source-Image-Link : https://bit.ly/3n6bqqk ] #Art #Architecture










@Legends and Myths
18-Mar-2023 05 am
 

The Temple of Diana, often referred to as the Temple of Artemis or Artemision, was a Greek temple devoted to a prehistoric, regional form of the goddess Artemis. It could be found in Ephesus. The Ionic immigration occurred several years after the earliest iteration of the temple, a Bronze Age temenos. About 550 BC, Chersiphron and his son Metagenes, a Cretan architect, began to rebuild it in a grander style. Croesus of Lydia provided the funding, and it took ten years to finish the project. An arsonist destroyed this rendition of the temple in 356 BC. According to the list of Antipater of Sidon, the Seven Wonders of the World, the next, greatest, and last iteration of the temple was financed by the Ephesians themselves. It is thought to be older than the Didyma oracular shrine to Apollo. Leleges and Lydians are thought to have lived in the city prior to the Ionic period. The first temenos at Ephesus was credited by the ancient Greek poet and scholar Callimachus to the Amazons, legendary warrior-women whose religious practises, in his imagination, already revolved on an image or bretas of Artemis, their matron goddess. According to Pausanias, the temple existed even before the Amazons. The peripteral temple at Ephesus is the earliest example of its kind on coast of Asia Minor and may be the oldest Greek temple ever to be encircled by colonnades. A flood in the seventh century BC wrecked the temple and covered the original clay floor with more than half a metre of sand and flotsam. The remains of an ivory plaque depicting a griffin and the Tree of Life, as well as few drilled tear-shaped amber drops, were found among the flood wreckage. Croesus, who established empire of Lydia and ruled Ephesus, was at least partially responsible for funding the construction of the second great temple. It began to be planned and built in 550 BC. The temple burned down in 356 BC. According to a number of traditions, Herostratus committed this heinous crime of arson in an effort to gain glory at all costs. This is how the term — Herostratic Fame — came to be used to define his desire for recognition. The Ephesians condemned the offender to death for this crime and barred anybody from mentioning his name ever. According to Greek and Roman legacy, Alexander the Great was born about the time the temple was destroyed. Plutarch says that Goddess Artemis was too busy with birth of Alexander to put out the fire in her temple, but he does not say what caused it. The Ephesians politely declined offer of Alexander to pay for the reconstruction of the temple, arguing that it would be wrong for one god to construct a temple for another, and they ultimately reconstructed it after his death at their own expense. Construction began around 323 BC and lasted for a long time. The third temple, which was 450 feet long, 225 feet wide, and 60 feet high with more than 127 columns, was bigger than the second temple. In early Christian records of Ephesus, this new restoration is mentioned several times and had endured for 600 years. The Temple was eventually demolished or destroyed by 401 AD [Information and Image Credit :: Temple_of_Artemis, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Artemis ] [Image : The imagined representation of the Temple of Artemis in a 16th-century hand-colored engraving by Martin Heemskerck shows how well-known it was throughout the Renaissance Period] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The Work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of Author plus 100 years or fewer. The Image is believed to be in Public Domain in the United States as well] Wikipedia-Source-Image URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Temple_of_Artemis.jpg ] #Mythology










@MythoSphere
04-Mar-2023 11 pm
 

A Vila, sometimes known as a Víla, is a feminine Slavic fairy with long blonde hair who resembles a nymph. Although West Slavic mythology also contains certain variations of the Vila, South Slavs are the ones who are most familiar with it. The Czech word Víla refers to a woods spirit from the fifteenth century, and old place names like Vilice near Tábor, Vilov near Domažlice, and Vilín near Sedlčanyseem to suggest that she was also well-known there. The Vilas are female nature spirits who have conflicting feelings towards people. In fairy tales, they may be cruel to the population—killing people and destroying crops—but they may also be helpful, providing the hero with mounts and magical items. They might even exhibit warrior-like traits. There is still debate as to whether the Vile were actually a part of Russian folklore and not just a literary feature even if they are referenced in the eleventh century. The Vile and the Rusalki share several characteristics. Vile are depicted among South Slavs as gorgeous women with long blonde hair. There are three different types: land and forest-dwelling nymphs, water nymphs, and cloud or air nymphs. The cloud nymphs take the form of wolves, horses, falcons, swans, or falcons. They prowl the sky at night, making a dreadful racket with pipes and drums. Everyone who calls them stiffens and can only move slowly. He gets sick and passes away in a year or two. Vile enjoy riding horses or stags, going hunting, dancing in a circle, and seeking the affection of attractive, powerful men and will help them fight off their adversaries. They have a distinct fighting style in Slavic mythology that is evocative of the Teutonic Valkyrie. They are skilled in the healing arts and have superhuman abilities. They construct magnificent castles at the edge of clouds. Their arrows mislead the spirits of men. Children are abducted by them, and Changelings are used in their place. In Slovakia, it is said that dead restless spirits of girls tempt young men into a deadly circle dance. Every hero in the epic poetry of Serbia has a Vila, who may be a blood sister or an elective. Ravijojl is the most popular Serbo-Croatian figure. Females may ask their Vile blood sisters to enhance their beauty or to defend a faraway boyfriend if they have them. Despite their propensity for being outgoing, the Vile can exact terrible revenge on those who offend them, disobey their commands, or enter their circle dance without permission. They differ from the Rusalki in that they are generally friendly. People honoured them by setting offerings of food, flowers, and drink in front of the caves where they were thought to have resided. Víly frequently prove harmful in the Czech culture unless they are respected and avoided. They are described as lovely women with long flowing hair who mostly reside in forests, marches, or clearings in the woods. They allegedly make an effort to entice guys who stray into their territory with their attractive appearances and lovely vocals. Víly are also claimed to reside in groups and enjoy dancing in circles, which was another strategy to trap people because it was thought that if you joined them, one would not be able to go home again [Information and Image Credit : Vila_(fairy), Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vila_(fairy) ] [Image: AI-Based Artisitic Imagination Vila and Consequent Derivative Art] #Mythology










@Art , Artwork and Artists
04-Mar-2023 03 am
 

Swedish artist August Malmström (1829–1901) created a painting titled Dancing Fairies (Swedish: Älvalek). In the moonlit scene of the picture, fairies can be seen dancing above the water. One of the fairies bends over the river to catch a glimpse of herself as the others dance in the meadow in the lovely dusk. The morning mist transforms into fairies in this surreal painting, which shows the spirits of primeval nature. Elves are frequently depicted as having fair hair and wearing white clothing in Romantic art and literature. In its native Sweden, Dancing Fairies by August Malmström is a well-known piece of work of art. One of the Swedish artists who aimed to develop a distinct national Swedish art was Malmström, a professor at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts. He used elements from both Norse mythology and folklore, and many of his paintings featured fairies and other natural spirits [Information Credit : Dancing_Fairies, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dancing_Fairies ] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The author died in 1901, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of author plus 100 years or fewer. The Work (Image) is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1928. (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-URL :: https://bit.ly/3YlI3gD ] #Art #Mythology










@Art , Artwork and Artists
25-Feb-2023 11 pm
 

Early eighteenth-century Irish portrait painter, translator, and art collector Charles Jervas lived between 1675 and 2 November 1739. Around 1675, John Jervas, son of Elizabeth, daughter of Captain John Baldwin of Shinrone Castle & Corolanty, High Sheriff of County Offaly, was born in Shinrone, County Offaly, Ireland. Between 1694 and 1695, Jervas worked as a working assistant for Sir Godfrey Kneller in London, England. Following the sale of several miniature copies of the Raphael Cartoons to Dr. George Clarke of All Souls College in Oxford in around 1698, he moved to Paris and Rome the following year, staying there for the majority of the following ten years before coming back to London in 1709 and getting good results as a portrait painter. Charles Jervas became a well-known artist who was frequently mentioned in the works of literary figures of the time by painting portraits of the intelligentsia of the city, including personal friends like Jonathan Swift and the poet Alexander Pope. Jervas succeeded Kneller as the Chief Painter in Ordinary to King George I in 1723 and later to King George II as a result of his expanding renown. He relocated to Hampton, London, after getting married to Penelope Hume, a wealthy widow who was rumoured to be worth £20,000. Up until his passing in 1739, he remained a resident of London. Jervas was the first to offer an introduction to the book, which also included a review of earlier translations of Don Quixote. Even though it was printed numerous times throughout the nineteenth century, it has received both great praise for being the most accurate translation of the book to that point and harsh criticism for being stilted and humourless [Information and Image Credit : Charles_Jervas, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Jervas ] [image: Self-portrait of Jervas] [The Image (Work) a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The (Image) Work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of Author plus 100 years or fewer. The Work is believed to be in Public Domain in the United States as well. (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URLs for More Usage Properties)] [Wikipedia-Source Image URL :: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Charles_Jervas.jpg ] #Art










@MythoSphere
25-Feb-2023 07 pm
 

In Baltic mythology, Kriwe Kriwaito, also known as just Kriwe, served as the top priest. During the era of romantic nationalism, the idea of Kriwe gained popularity. The Romuva movement in Lithuania have now adopted the name. The chronicle Chronicon terrae Prussiae, completed in 1326 A.D., mentions the Kriwe. It claims that Kriwe, who resided in Romuva, enjoyed the same level of esteem as that of the Catholic pope among other Baltic tribes in addition to Old Prussians. His delegations were revered by both aristocrats and commoners alike and carried a particular rod or other emblem. The Kriwe had the ability to view the dead and describe them to their loved ones. it was also mentioned, the sacred perpetual flame was maintained by Kriwe, who was also known as the highest judge. The most thorough depiction of the pagan priest was given in a later story, which also added the dual name Kriwe Kriwaito or Criwo Cyrwaito. From the first Bruteno, who was regarded as one of the most famous kings of Prussia along with his brother Widewuto, to Alleps, their names were all listed. The Kriwe, as per the story, was the focal point of Prussian political and religious life; for instance, he had the power to launch or halt wars. An elderly Kriwe was also expected to offer himself to the gods by setting himself on fire, even if this rarely occurred. Priests and prophets of lower ranks would then choose a new Kriwe. In other later tales, a bent and twisted wooden stick named Krywule was depicted and described as an example. Village elders used the stick to summon neighbours to a meeting so they could talk about issues they had in common. In the nineteenth century, the practise continued, and ethnographers gathered a few Krywule artefacts for various museums. The very idea of a Pagan Pope rose to prominence in the era of romantic nationalism [Information Credit : Kriwe, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kriwe ] [Image: AI-Based Artistic-Imagination of Kriwe and Further Derivative Art of the Same]  #Mythology










@Art , Artwork and Artists
22-Feb-2023 12 am
 

Irish artist John James Barralet, who lived between 1747 and January 16, 1815, devoted the last half of his professional career in the United States. Barralet was born in Dublin, Ireland, and is of French ancestry. After studying under James Mannin, he became a drawing teacher in Dublin early in his career. However, he eventually moved to London and began watercolour painting. In 1770, he sent three landscape paintings to the Royal Academy, and in the years that followed, he occasionally submitted work. He was hired to draw the covers for publications about Irish antiquities. He immigrated to America in 1795 and settled in Philadelphia, where he passed away in 1815. Infrequently between the years of 1775 and 1789, his brother J. Melchior Barralet, a teacher at the Royal Academy School, sent slightly coloured drawings to the Academy Exhibitions [Information and Image Credit : John_James_Barralet, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link:   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_James_Barralet ] [Image: View of Lucan House - John James Barralet; Wikipedia-Credit: Yale Center for British Art] [Images Availed Under Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. The person who associated a work with this deed has dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of their rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law. One can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission. [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link:   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John_James_Barralet_-_View_of_Lucan_House_-_B1975.2.160_-_Yale_Center_for_British_Art.jpg ] #Art










@Legends and Myths
20-Feb-2023 04 am
 

The feminine morning star deity Aušrinė i.e. relative to Dawning, is comparable to Venus in Lithuanian mythology. She is an opposite reflection of Vakarinė, the evening star. Her worship is linked to that of the Vedic Ushas, the Latvian Auseklis, the Greek Eos, the Roman Aurora, and the Indo-European morning goddess Hausōs. The Goddess of elegance, romance, and youthfulness, Aušrinė is associated with health, resurrection, and fresh starts. As per tradition, Aušrinė and her attendant Tarnaitis, who is most likely Mercury, prepare Carefully the path of Sun every morning. In the evening, Vakarinė gets the bed of Saulė the Sun ready. The relationship between Saulė and Aušrinė is complicated. In some cases Saulė is described as the mother of Aušrinė, Vakarinė and other planets like Indraja i.e. Jupiter , Sėlija i.e. Saturn, Žiezdrė i.e. Mars, Vaivora i.e. Mercury and even Žemyna i.e. Earth. Her name is the solution to a conundrum concerning dew in a traditional Latvian folktale. The Moon notices the lost keys of a girl or spreads-out her pearl necklace in this puzzle, but the Sun takes them. A well-known legend relates how Mėnulis, the Moon, fell in love with the lovely Aušrinė, cheated on his wife Saulė, and was punished by Perkūnas, the Thunder-God. The competition between Saulė and Aušrinė is also depicted in various stories, with Saulė being envious of the beauty and brilliance of Aušrinė. Despite the infidelity or antagonism, Aušrinė continues to be devoted to Saulė and provide morning assistance. In some tales, Aušrinė is referred to as Karaliūnė and Dangaus Kariūnė, or Queen of Heaven [Information Credit : Aušrinė, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Au%C5%A1rin%C4%97 ] [Image: AI-Based Artistic Imagination of Aušrinė and consequent Derivative Art] #Mythology










@Art , Artwork and Artists
20-Feb-2023 01 am
 

Helen Mabel Trevor was an Irish landscape and genre painter who lived from 20 December 1831 to 3 April 1900. On December 20, 1831, Helen Mabel Trevor was born in Lisnagead House in Loughbrickland, County Down. Trevor was the oldest daughter of Edward Hill Trevor, Esq. Father of Trevor gave her a studio as an early kind of support when she started to draw. She left Ireland in the 1870s, and until the 1890s, she was able to travel and pursue her education thanks to money from the Loughbrickland estate. Later in life, Trevor become deaf. On April 3, 1900, she suddenly passed away in her studio in Rue du Cherche Midi from a heart attack. She submitted The Youthful Mechanic and Portrait of William III to the Dublin Exhibition in 1853 before presenting Sketch from Life to the Royal Hibernian Academy in 1854. She later submitted artwork featuring a dog, a kitten, the hounds of the Newry Hunt, as well as a portrait, to the RHA in 1856. She provided two paintings of dogs in 1858. She spent four years studying at the Royal Academy of Arts in London in the 1870s after her parents passed away. Trevor relocated to Paris in 1880 and pursued studies there under Jean-Jacques Henner, Luc-Olivier Merson, and Carolus-Duran. In 1881 and 1882, she visited Brittany and Normandy with her sister Rose. The RA received her 1881 picture, Breton boys en retenue. Two Breton girls, another piece, was most likely created during this period. In 1883, she visited Concarneau, where it is possible that she ran upon the realism Jules Bastien-Lepage. The sisters travelled and studied the Old Masters during their six-year of travel and study in Italy after moving there in 1883. In 1889, Trevor went back to Paris and started working again for Carolus-Duran. During this time, she made regular trips to Brittany, but she spent the rest of her life in Paris at several addresses. She displayed at the Paris Salon in 1889, 1893, and 1899. She was given a honourable mention for her 1898 piece, Breton Interior. Fourteen of her paintings were sent to the RHA between 1889 and 1897, while others were sent to the RA. Two paintings by Trevor were left to the National Gallery of Ireland. Later, she was highlighted in The Centenary of Impressionism: Nineteenth Century French Art and Ireland, a 1974 NGI exhibit [Information and Image Crdit : Helen_Mabel_Trevor, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_Mabel_Trevor ] [Image: Helen Mabel Trevor] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The Work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of author plus 70 years or fewer.The photographic reproduction is therefore also considered to be in the public domain in the United States. (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property) Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Helen_Mabel_Trevor_-_Self-Portrait_-_NGI502.jpg ] #Art










@MythoSphere
16-Feb-2023 12 am
 

The -World Tree- is a motif present in several religions and mythologies, particularly Indo-European religions and certainly in Norse, Iranian and Indian religions. The world tree is represented as a colossal tree which supports the heavens, thereby connecting the heavens, the terrestrial world, and, through its roots, the underworld. In Norse mythology, Yggdrasil is the world tree. Yggdrasil is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in 13th century and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century. In both sources, Yggdrasil is an immense ash tree that is central and considered very holy. The Æsir go to Yggdrasil daily to hold their courts. The branches of Yggdrasil extend far into the heavens, and the tree is supported by three roots that extend far away into other locations: one to the well Urðarbrunnr in the heavens, one to the spring Hvergelmir, and another to the well Mímisbrunnr. In Persian mythology, the legendary bird Simurgh or alternatively, Saēna bird; Sēnmurw and Senmurv, perches atop a tree located in the center of the sea Vourukasa. This tree is described as having all-healing properties and many seeds. In another account, the tree is the very same tree of the White Hōm i.e. Haōma. Gaokerena or white Haoma is a tree whose vivacity ensures continued life in the universe, and grants immortality to -- All Who Eat From It. Kalpavriksha i.e. Wish-Fulfilling Tree and Ashvattha tree of the Indian religions is also similar example. The Ashvattha tree i.e. Keeper of Horses is described as a sacred fig and corresponds to --The Most Typical Representation of the World Tree in India, upon whose branches the celestial bodies rest. Likewise, the Kalpavriksha is also equated with a fig tree and said to possess wish-granting abilities. Kalpavriksha i.e. Wish-Fulfilling Tree and Ashvattha tree of the Indian religions is also similar example. The Ashvattha tree i.e. Keeper of Horses is described as a sacred fig and corresponds to --The Most Typical Representation of the World Tree in India, upon whose branches the celestial bodies rest. Likewise, the Kalpavriksha is also equated with a fig tree and said to possess wish-granting abilities. [Information-Credit: World_tree, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_tree ] [Image: Artistic Depiction of World Tree]  #Mythology










@Monuments and Architecture
15-Feb-2023 02 am
 

Alnwick, in the English county of Northumberland, is home to Alnwick Castle, a castle and country residence. It was constructed after the Norman conquest and has had numerous renovations and remodels. It is the residence of the 12th Duke of Northumberland. The family of Ralph Percy, the Twelfth Duke of Northumberland, resides in this Grade I listed building. In 2016, the Alnwick Garden, a nearby attraction, and the castle together attracted more than 600,000 tourists annually. Road that crosses the River Aln is protected by Alnwick Castle. The first portions of the castle were built by Ivo de Vesci, Baron of Alnwick, around 1096 A.D. The son of Yves de Vescy, Beatrix de Vesci, wed Eustace fitz John, the constable of Chestershire and Knaresborough. The baronies of Malton and Alnwick were given to him through his marriage to Beatrix de Vesci. When King David I of Scotland took possession of the fortress in 1136 A.D. , it was first referenced. It was characterised as being very strong at this stage. William the Lion, King of Scotland, besieged it twice in 1172 and 1174 A.D. , and after the Battle of Alnwick, William was taken prisoner outside the city walls. Eustace de Vesci of Alnwick, the lord, was charged in 1212 for conspiring against King John alongside Robert Fitzwalter. In retaliation, John ordered the destruction of both Alnwick Castle and stronghold of Fitzwalter, Castle of Baynard, however his directives at Alnwick were not followed. When father of Ivo de Vesci passed away in Gascony in 1253, his descendent John de Vesci inherited to the titles and possessions of his father. King Henry III of England gave a foreign kinsman the wardship of his properties because John was a minor, which greatly offended the de Vesci family. The Percys bought the assets and estates of the family, which had been placed under the care of Antony Bek. The Percy family has owned Alnwick and its castle ever since, first as the earls of Northumberland and then as the dukes of Northumberland, despite the fact that they still kept their Yorkshire holdings and titles. The Percy family had a position of prominence as lords in northern England. Richard II was overthrown and Henry Percy, the First Earl of Northumberland between 1341–1408, also participated in that uprising against him. Following the loss of Harry Hotspur in the Battle of Shrewsbury, Monarch Henry IV pursued the earl who had later rebelled alongside his son against the king. In 1403, the castle gave up under the prospect of bombardment. Castles were rarely attacked during the Wars of the Roses, and most fighting took place on the battlefield. In the years 1461 and 1462, Lancastrian armies held three castles, including Alnwick. Alnwick Castle became increasingly deserted after Thomas Percy, the 7th Earl of Northumberland, was put to death in 1572. Following the Battle of Dunbar in 1650, Oliver Cromwell would utilise the fortress to imprison prisoners. Under the direction of the relocating Percy family, Robert Adam, James Paine, Daniel Garrett, and Capability Brown made numerous changes to the property in the second part of the 18th century. Algernon, 4th Duke of Northumberland, however, altered much of the design of Adam in the nieteenth century. Instead, between 1854 and 1865, he paid Anthony Salvin £250,000 to have the Gothic extensions and other architectural work removed. The kitchen, the Prudhoe Tower, the opulent accommodations, and the design of the inner ward are primarily the responsibility of Salvin  [Information and Image Credit : Alnwick_Castle, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alnwick_Castle ] [Image : Alnwick Castle, by J. M. W. Turner] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The author died in 1851, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the Life of Author plus 100 years or fewer. The work (Image) is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1928. (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:J.M.W._Turner_-_Alnwick_Castle_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg ]  #Architecture #Art










@MythoSphere
14-Feb-2023 03 am
 

In Lithuanian mythology, the fire-spirit is known as Gabija or Gabieta. She guards the family and the household. Her name is a translation of Gaubti. Gabija could assume the zoomorphic shapes of a cat, stork, rooster, or a woman dressed in crimson. Gabija was treated with the utmost respect and compassion. People would give Gabija salt and bread to feed her. Every evening, women would wrap the charcoal with ashes to put the fire to bed so it would not roam. Mother of the home was the guardian of fire, much as Gabija was for the home. The fireplace would occasionally have a bowl of clean water left there so Gabija could cleanse herself. Gabija would take a walk while burning the house if she was enraged. Folklore frequently tells of the terrible destiny of individuals who stomped, spit, or peed on Gabija in order to anger her. The Lithuanian goddess Matka Gabia is the protector of the home and hearth. Most probably she is derived from Gabija. [Information Credit : Gabija, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabija ] [Image: A Derivative Art of -- Gabija as Protector of the Fire by gpalmer on DeviantArt]  #Mythology










@Old World
28-Jan-2023 03 am
 

The archaeological center of Khalchayan, also known as Khaltchaïan, is situated close to the contemporary town of Denov in the Surxondaryo Region of southern Uzbekistan. It is believed to be a tiny palace or a receiving hall. It is situated in the Surkhan Darya Valley, which is a northern tributary of the Oxus, or the contemporary Amu Darya. The earlier Kushans or their Yuezhi or Tocharian forebears are typically credited with building the site. Galina Pugachenkova dug it up between 1959 and 1963. The clay sculptures and paintings that adorn the inside walls are dated to the middle of the first century BCE, but they are believed to depict events from as early as the second century BCE. Battles, feasts, and monarch portraits are shown in a variety of panels. It is thought that the Kushans and a Saka tribe are fighting in some of the Khalchayan sculptures. The Sakas are frequently depicted with side-wiskers in more or less hideous poses, in contrast to the stately demeanour of the Yuezhis. The bust of a Parthian monarch was found among the sculptures at Khalchayan, and based on the historical period and similarity to coins, it is possible that Vardanes I is depicted as he seeks sanctuary and potentially an alliance at the Yuezhi court in Bactria. After failing at the siege of Seleucia in the year 35 CE, Vardanes reportedly sought refuge among the Bactrians. Due to these occurrences, the Khalchayan picture of the Parthian monarch may have been painted between 45 and 47 CE, during which time Kujula Kadphises was possibly the Kushan ruler in power at the time. The art of Kalchayan, which dates to the latter half of the 2nd century BCE, is thought to have been influenced by Hellenistic art in the end, as well as perhaps by that of the cities of Eucratideia and Nysa. However, it also shares characteristics with the later Art of Gandhara and could have even been the inspiration for its creation. The startling likeness between the portrait of the Kushan king Heraios and the Gandhara Bodhisattva is also noted [Information Credit : Khalchayan, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalchayan ] [Image : Prince of Yuezhi of Khalchayan. The prized Saka cataphract armour with neck guard is lying at his feet. First millennium BCE. Uzbekistan Museum of Arts, nb 40. ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : ALFGRN;  (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URLs for More Usage Properties)] [Image-License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kalchayan_Prince_warrior_(full).jpg ]










@Art , Artwork and Artists
26-Jan-2023 05 am
 

The Vedic Goddess of Speech, Music, Art, Learning, and Wisdom is known as Saraswati. She is one of the three goddesses that make up the Tridevi, or trinity, together with Goddesses Lakshmi and Parvati. The Rigveda has the first recorded reference of Saraswati as a Goddess. She has continued to be an important deity from the Vedic era to the present day of Indian religions. She is typically depicted as having four arms and holding a book, a rosary, a water pitcher, and a Veenaa musical instrument. In Hinduism, each of these objects has a symbolic value. In various parts of India, Hindus honour Goddess Saraswati by celebrating Vasant Panchami, or the fifth day of spring, also known as Saraswati Puja and Saraswati Jayanti. On that day, it is customary to assist young children in learning how to write the alphabet. Along with some Buddhist sects, followers of the Jain religion from west and central India also hold the Goddess in high regard! [Information-Credit : Saraswati, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saraswati ] [Image-Credit : Ms Sarah Welch, Wikipedia] [The file (Image) is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. The person who associated a work with this deed has dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of their rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law. You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission. (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.en ] [Original Source Image URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1150_CE_Hoysaleswara_temple_Halebidu_Karnataka,_Dancing_Saraswati.jpg ] [Image : Three panels of the Hoysaleswara temple in Halebid, Karnataka, feature a dancing Sarasvati with eight hands (above) (c. 1150 CE). One of them is displayed above. She is holding a pen, a palm leaf manuscript, a musical instrument, and other objects used in the main arts in one of her eight hands as she assumes a traditional Indian dance position. She was therefore portrayed by the Shilpins as the goddess of all learning and the arts] #Art #Mythology










@Monuments and Architecture
23-Jan-2023 12 am
 

Muckross House, or Teach Mhucrois in Irish, is situated on the tiny Muckross Peninsula between Muckross Lake and Lough Leane, two of the lakes of Killarney, in County Kerry, Ireland, six kilometres from the town of Killarney. It was given to the Irish people in 1932 by William Bowers Bourn and Arthur Rose Vincent. As a result, it established the foundation for the current Killarney National Park and became the first national park in the Irish Free State , which is now the Republic of Ireland. It had 65 rooms and was constructed in the Tudor style. In the 1850s, significant upgrades were made in anticipation of the visit of Queen Victoria in 1861. It is rumoured that the upgrades made in preparation for the visit of the Queen, played a part in the consequent financial struggles of the Herbert family, which led to the selling of the estate. Arthur Guinness, 1st Baron Ardilaun, purchased it in 1899 with the intention of preserving the breathtaking surroundings. He did not live there, but rather rented it out as a hunting lodge to affluent groups. Muckross House and its holdings were once more sold to William Bowers Bourn, a prosperous Californian mining industrialist, in August 1911, just before the First World War. As a wedding gift, he and his wife gave it to their daughter Maud and her husband Arthur Rose Vincent. The two stayed there up until the death of Maud from pneumonia in 1929. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Bourn, as well as their son-in-law Arthur Vincent, made the decision in 1932 to donate Muckross House and its 11,000-acre estate to the people of Ireland. As the first national park in the Republic of Ireland, it was known as the Bourn-Vincent Memorial Park and served as the inspiration for the current Killarney National Park. Later, the size of the park was significantly increased because to the purchase of property from the estate of the former Earl of Kenmare [Information-Credit : Muckross_House, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link :: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muckross_House ] [Image: North Side View of the Muckross House, Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland ; Original-Image-Credit : Людмила Шалимова, Pexels; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/north-side-view-of-the-muckross-house-killarney-in-county-kerry-ireland-12860074/#Architecture










@Art , Artwork and Artists
22-Jan-2023 03 am
 

The Westminster Retable, the oldest known altarpiece in England made of panel painting, is thought to have been created in the 1270s for Westminster Abbey by a group of Plantagenet court artists, most likely for the high altar. It is believed that Henry III of England gave it as portion of his Gothic renovation of the Abbey. The artwork was only preserved because it was integrated into furniture between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, and the most of it can no longer be restored. With funding from the Getty Foundation and the Heritage Lottery Fund, the Cambridge-based Hamilton Kerr Institute started a six-year project to cleanse and protect what was left of the work in 1998. Once finished, it spent four months in 2005 on show at the National Gallery in London before being transported back to Westminster Abbey, where it was currently on view at the museum. The retable is painted on multiple linked oak panels measuring 959 x 3330 mm utilising thin colour glazes in linseed oil over gessoed surfaces. With six major flat panels and various minor wooden components, the structure is intricate. In order to replicate the lavish metalwork of goldsmiths found on some surviving retables and shrines on the Continent, as well as the now-destroyed Shrine of Edward the Confessor installed in the Abbey in 1269, the retable is divided into five sections by gilded wooden arcading, with pastiglia relief work, elaborate glass inlays, inset semi-precious stones, and paste gemstones. The painting is of exceptionally good quality, and judging by the excellent detail and several stylistic elements, it was most likely created by an artist accustomed to working on illuminated manuscripts. No accommodations were made for more popular taste since the intricate images were placed in a location on the high altar where they could only be seen by officiating clergy [Information-Credit : Westminster_Retable, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link:: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Retable ] [Image: One of the pieces of the altarpiece that is better preserved -- The Feeding of the Five Thousand] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of author plus 70 years or fewer. The photographic reproduction is also considered to be in the public domain in the United States.] [Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Westminster_400.jpg ] #Art










@Legends and Myths
11-Jan-2023 01 am
 

The Baltic Goddess of Fate is known as Laima. She was a benefactor of expectant mothers and was connected to delivery, matrimony, and death. Comparable to the Norse Norns or the Greek Moirai, Laima and her sisters, Kārta and Dēkla, were a triad of destiny goddesses in Latvian mythology. Laima, who is far more well-liked, decides the destiny of a person in the end. Although they all performed similar duties, Laima is the Goddess of fortune and is more associated with women and childbearing, Dēkla is in custody of the children, and Kārta has control over the life of an adult. Deity Dalia, also related to Fate, and Giltin, The Reaper, are two further similar deities. Lakshmi, the Hindu Goddess, shares similarities with Laima in her roles. The above mentioned Three Goddesses are together defined as three Laimas in contemporary Dievturi, signifying that they are the same divinity in three separate manifestations. Ritual offerings of hens, sheep, towels or other woven items to Laima were part of the birth rites at the end of the nineteenth century. The rite, which was carried out in a Sauna (a kind of room or building), was only open to female participants. Laima shared a connection with Gegutė, or the cuckoo, which the Greimas believed to be a different deity. Others believe she is also a manifestation of Laima. Time and the progression of the seasons were under the control of Gegut. The frequency of her calls was thought to indicate how long someone was left to live with. She also prophesize how an individual would spend the rest of the year in the spring; for instance, a person would be impoverished for the rest of the year if he had no money on him when he heard the cuckoo. The linden tree is a revered symbolic tree associated with Goddess Laima. [Information-Credit : Laima , Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laima ] [Image: An Artistic Depiction of Goddess Laima]  #Mythology 










@Art of Heritage
07-Jan-2023 02 am
 

It was Charles Edward Stuart, who attempted to restore his father James Francis Edward Stuart to the throne of British during the Jacobite Rising of 1745, which also came to be known as the Forty-Five Rebellion. The Uprising took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the majority of the British Army was incidentally engaged in combat on the Continental- Europe, and it proved to be the final showdown of the series of uprisings that have started in 1689 and peaked in intensity in the years 1708, 1715, and 1719. At Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands on August 19, 1745, Charlesled foundation to the new uprising. He later took possession of Edinburgh and triumphed at the Battle of Prestonpans in September. After Charles had promised the Scots of significant support from the English Jacobites and a simultaneous French arrival in Southern England, the Scots resolved to attack England at a meeting in October. On the basis of this plan, the Jacobite army arrived in England in early November and made their way to Derby on December 4 before deciding to turn around. Similar debates had occurred in Carlisle, Preston, and Manchester, and many believed they had already crossed a line. The invasion path had been chosen to pass through staunchly Jacobite territories, but when the promised English reinforcement did not show up, they found themselves outnumbered and in danger of having their retreat snarled. The majority of people agreed with the choice, but it irreparably divided the Scots allies of Charles. Despite winning at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, the Rebellion and major support for the Stuart cause were put an end at the Battle of Culloden in April. Charles managed to flee to France, but he was unable to secure backing for a second attempt, and he eventually passed away in Rome in 1788. Even though the Jacobite cause persisted after 1746, it was no longer a genuine political cause of concern due to the varied goals of its supporters. Irish Jacobite groups were eventually absorbed into the Society of United Irishmen since they became to express hostility to the status quo rather than love for the Stuarts. After 1745, the general public began to view Highlanders more as members of a noble warrior race who were ethnically and culturally distinct from other Scots. In 1745, Highlanders were now forbidden from serving abroad, and as a deliberate necessary measure, their recruitment into the British Army was increased! [Information Credit : Jacobite_rising_of_1745 , Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobite_rising_of_1745 ] [Image: Artistic Depiction (Derivative Art) of the Rebellion of 1745]










@Art of Heritage
06-Jan-2023 02 am
 

The Divine Manifestation of Light and Spring, the very embodiment of fertility, and the guardian protector of horses and bees in Latvian Mythology is known as Ūsiņš. Among Latvian deities it is one of the few Deities for which historical evidences can be inferred that is essentially reliable testimony. Summer is officially heralded with Ūsiņš Day as they gift verdant fields and trees with green leaves. The first time that men drove horses to Piegula was on Ūsiņi. The ornamental sign for Ūsiņš resembles two letter E placed with their backs to one another. The most popular glove adornment is this symbol. According to a myth, these gloves, known as Atslēgaiņi, bring their wearer good fortune on the road. A foal is the most significant representation of Ūsiņš Day, which has multiple meanings. Because sexual power is equivalent to energy to procreate, it is both a representation of power of Dievas and human energy. A yellow foal is a symbolic representation of the energy of the sun. With Ūsiņš it is also connected to another image: the golden grass snake. A snake is a metaphor for the movement of energy. It is proposed that Ūsiņš is a typological member of the class of heavenly deities, and that because of certain characteristics, he can be identified as the deity of light. He is a morning and evening star-related cosmic deity, if this perception of him is accurate. The Greek Dioskouri or Sons of Zeus, who also transport the Sun like Ūsiņš, are comparable to Ūsiņš because they share traits with the Indian deity Ashvini. Another similarity is that both Asvins are referred to as Divo napata, or Sons of Dyaus, and Ūsiņš is also known as Son of Dievs. Farmers fully entrust him with custody of their horses, giving them to him. Folk ballads state that Ūsiņš personally has horses and takes excellent care of them. Ūsiņš is the God of Light, hence horses were used to deliver the Sun. On the day of the horse market, when they were bought and sold, Ūsiņš Day was observed. Ūsiņš Day was greeted by a rumbling and a lot of noise, which is consistent with the springtime thundering character! [Information Credit : Ūsiņš , Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%AAsi%C5%86%C5%A1 ] [Image: Artistic Depiction of Horses Release for the First Pieguļa after Winter on the Ūsiņš Day] #Mythology










@Art of Heritage
06-Jan-2023 12 am
 

The County Donegal of Ireland and in particular its northern side shore is popularly known as the Fanad, lying between Mulroy Bay and Lough Swilly. Fanad is home to some 700 residents and statistically some thirty percent of them speak Irish. Geographically the parishes of Clondavaddog, Killygarvan and portions of Tullyfern and Aughinish are included inside of Fanad. Although it is specifically not known where the name Fanad originated, it is rumoured to have been etymologically derived from the old Gaelic term Fana, which means sloping ground. The surveyor John O Donovan identified Rathmullan as the Fanad capital in 1835 and comprised of parishes besides Clondavaddog. When the MacSuibhne family ruled Fanad in the sixteenth century, it was said that the region of Fanaid reached far as south as the River Lennon between Kilmacrennan and Ramelton. Over the years, there have been some disagreements regarding what marked the southern border of Fanad. Today it is measured roughly twelve kilometer east-west between the townlands of Doaghbeg and Glinsk and about twenty-five kilometer in the north-south direction from Fanad Head up to the town of Ramelton. Fanad as a habitat is an amalgamation of tiny village communities including Tamney, Rossnakill, and Kerrykeel and also another neighbouring community. The majority of the underlying rocks in the peninsula are Dalradian meta-sedimentary rocks, which have been revealed over thousands of years by erosion and other weathering activities. Regarding its topography, rock alignments can be seen through the Fanad peninsula in the direction from southwest to the northeast on any geological maps of County Donegal. From Ballywhoriskey to Fanad Head, the peninsular northern side has stripes of Granodiorite igneous rocks, but the majority of Fanad geology is made up of Middle-Dalradian Quartzite and some Pellite rocks with isolated spots of Schists and Tillites. Tillites are mostly found around the northern inlet of Mulroy Bay. The elevated ground moving of south from Fanad Head to Portsalon is a basically strip of Quartzite, whereas the cliffs which surround the Fanad Head are made of bare Grandiorite. Yet another quartzite-based mountain is the Knockalla Mountain. Geological processes, including those caused by glaciers and ice sheets recurrently covered the area as recently as fourteen thousand years ago and have resulted in the creation of the terrain of Fanad. Fanad and the adjacent neighbourhood were seriously effected by the withdrawal of the ice sheet. The occurrence of Megalithic court tombs at a number of localities, such as Tyrladden, Drumhallagh Upper, and Crevary Upper, dating most probably from around 4,000 to 3,500 BCE, is most likely the oldest indication of human habitation in Fanad. Neolithic doorway tombs, also otherwise referred to as dolmens, can be found, including examples at Gortnavern, south of Kerrykeel, and above Saltpans, on the Lough Swilly side of the peninsula. These are thought to have been around between 3,800 to 2,200 BCE! [Information Credit : Fanad, Wikipedia ; Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fanad ] [Image: Artistic Depiction of Fanad Lighthouse, County Donegal]










@Heritage and Geographical Sites
25-Dec-2022 05 am
 

Along with other islands in Roaringwater Bay, Sherkin Island, formerly known as Inisherkin, is located in County Cork of Ireland to the southwest. Sherkin Island is a popular tourist location, and travel time from Baltimore to Sherkin is normally not too long. It takes roughly 40 minutes to travel to the adjacent Gaeltacht island of Cape Clear. Many people who live in Sherkin are involved in the arts, including writing, painting, and crafts. Artists, writers, craftspeople, musicians, photographers, beekeepers, cow farmers, mussel and oyster farmers, oceanologists, fisherman, sailors, teachers, etc. are among the people who live in Sherkin. Two pubs, a hotel, a bed and breakfast, a community centre, a coffee shop and a religious building are all present on the island. At the occasion of the 2016 Census, Sherkin it had a community of 111 individuals and is five kilometres long by 2.5 kilometres broad. The Great Irish Famine in the middle of the nineteenth century caused the population of Sherkin, which had previously been roughly 1,000, to begin to fall. Currently, the population is declining and changes between the summer and winter seasons, rising in the summer as residents return to their vacation homes and more visitors arrive. It takes roughly 40 minutes to travel to the neighbouring Gaeltacht island of Cape Clear. Many people who live in Sherkin are involved in the arts, including writing, painting, and crafts. The start of the busiest time of year coincides with the commencement of the summer vacation for students. A sea safari tour of the islands can be reserved by guests. On Sherkin, there are several archaeological relics. Overlooking Abbey shore, where the pier is located, is a Franciscan monastery locally called as the Abbey. Locals in Sherkin care for the automated lighthouse there. It was built in 1835 and is located near Barrack Point. The Promontory fort, which dates from the Celtic Iron Age i.e. 600 BC–400 AD, is another of the major heritage places. Sherkin includes amenities for camps as well. Campers and picnickers are advised to bring as little packing as possible, transport any litter back to the mainland, or recycle the cans and bottles on Sherkin Pier due to the lack of local trash disposal setup on the island. Barbecues are popular in Silver Strand. The Sherkin Regatta festival, a rowing competition often held in late July or early August, falls on the busiest day of the year. On this day, sea rowers and their fans visit the island, where there are activities for children, live music, and food vendors. On occasion, music events are also hosted. [Information and Image Credit : Sherkin_Island, Wikipedia] [Image : A View from the highest location of Sherkin Island] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported ; Wikipedia-Attribution or Attribution : Dunaevam at English Wikipedia ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia Source-Image-URL :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:From_the_highest_point_of_Sherkin_Island.jpg ]










@Legends and Myths
23-Dec-2022 12 am
 

 Sigyn is a divine figure from Norse mythology. She is mentioned in the Prose Edda, which Snorri Sturluson wrote in the 13th century, as well as the Poetic Edda, which was assembled in the 13th century from older traditional sources. Little is said about Sigyn in the Poetic Edda other how she helped her husband Loki when he was imprisoned. She occurs in several kennings, her assistance in assisting Loki through his time in enslavement is emphasised, and she is twice referred to as a Goddess in the Prose Edda. Sigyn might be shown on the Gosforth Cross and has been the focus of numerous theories and cultural allusions. A völva tells Odin in stanza 35 of the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá that she witnesses Sigyn seated extremely unhappy with her chained husband, Loki, under a — Grove of Hot Springs, among several other things. In the concluding prose part of the poem Lokasenna , Sigyn is addressed once more. In the narrative, Loki is shown as having been shackled by the Gods with theguts of his son Nari; his son Váli is said to have been transformed into a wolf; and the goddess Skaði has a poisonous serpent fastened over the face of Loki, dripping venom. Under the dripping poison, Sigyn is supporting a basin. As the basin fills up, she takes it away, at which point Loki is stung with venom, writhing so frantically that tremors rock the entire planet. It has been suggested that the Gosforth Cross in Cumbria, England, which dates to the middle of the eleventh century, contains a number of Norse mythological characters. A long-haired prostrate woman holding something over another tied, is shown near the bottom half of the west side of the cross. A tangled serpent is above them and to the left of them. This has been understood as Sigyn comforting the restrained Loki. [Information and Image Credit : Sigyn, Wikipedia] [Image : Loki and Sigyn by Mårten Eskil Winge (1863)] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, Public Domain Work of Art. The work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of Author plus 100 years or fewer. (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [Source-Image-URL ::    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Loki,_by_M%C3%A5rten_Eskil_Winge_1890.jpg#Mythology










@Legends and Myths
19-Dec-2022 04 am
 

1. Leif Erikson was the first Viking to explore the land of Vinland–part of North America, which was most possibly near the modern-day Newfoundland! 2. Erik the Red (Father of Leif Erikson) was the first permanent European settler of Greenland and popularly credited with discovery of Greenland as well. Apparently the name “Greenland” was coined by him, supposedly in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers! 3. Naddodd (Great, Great, Great Grand-Uncle of Leif Erikson), the discoverer of Iceland! Family Tree- Leif Erikson son of Erik the Red, son of Thorvald Ásvaldsson, son of Ásvald Ulfsson, son of Ulf Oxen-Thorisson, son of Oxen-Thorir (brother of Naddodd). One Family – Generational contribution for three different landmasses – Iceland, Greenland and Vinland (America). [Information Credit : Naddodd; Thorvald_Asvaldsson; Erik_the_Red; Leif_Erikson; Wikipedia] [image Credit : Leif_Erikson; Wikipedia] [Image : The Landing of the Vikings by Arthur C. Michael (1919)] [The work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of author plus 70 years or fewer. The Image is expected to be in Public Domain in the United States as well. (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URLs for More Usage Properties)] [Source Image URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_landing_of_Vikings_on_America.jpg ] #Mythology










@Monuments and Architecture
15-Dec-2022 05 am
 

Trim Castle is a 30,000 square metre castle located on the south bank of the River Boyne in Trim, County Meath, Ireland. Hugh de Lacy and his son Walter constructed it over the course of 30 years as the centre of the Lordship of Meath. Through the state organisation the Office of Public Works, the Irish government currently owns the castle and is in responsibility of its maintenance. The castle is listed as one of County historic sites of Meath. Land of Meath was originally possessed by the church, but Henry II of England gave it to Hugh de Lacy in 1172 as one of the new administrative regions of the country. On top of the hill, De Lacy constructed a massive ringwork fortress that was fortified by a sturdy double fence and an outside ditch. There might have been more defences surrounding the cliffs that surrounded the stronger high position. Under the current stone gate on the west flank of the castle, there is a portion of a stone-footed timber gatehouse. The location was picked because it is elevated and looks out over a River Boyne fording point. Around 25 miles from the Irish Sea, the region was a significant early mediaeval ecclesiastical and royal centre that was accessible by water up the River Boyne. The Norman poem The Song of Dermot and the Earl makes reference to Trim Castle. Hugh Tyrrel, baron of Castleknock, one of top lieutenants of De Lacy, was given control of the castle when he left Ireland. Walter de Lacy, Son of Hugh , inherited him as Lord of Meath after his passing in 1186. His work on the castle did not stop there; it was finished in the 1220s, most likely in 1224. At the end of the 13th and the commencement of the 14th centuries, the castle underwent its second stage of growth, adding a new main hall, a new forebuilding, and stables to the keep. The Mortimer family finally received the castle, and they held it there until Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, ended the male line in 1425. Following the death of Richard of York at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460, his son, King Edward IV, assigned London goldsmith Germyn Lynch to serve as his delegate at Trim as the warden and master worker of the new problems of moneys and coins within the Castles of Dublin and Trim, as well as the town of Galway, in 1461. Trim Castle hosted a mint and hosted seven sessions of the Irish Parliament in the fifteenth century. At the period, it served as administrative hub of Meath and the northernmost point of The Pale. It went into decay and was left to collapse in the 16th century, but it was redefended in the 1640s during the Irish Confederate Wars. The castle was given to the Wellesley family after the conflicts of the 1680s, and they owned it until Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, gave it to the Leslies. The Dunsany Plunketts eventually acquired it through the Encumbered Estates Court. The Dunsany family owned the castle and its surroundings up until 1993, when Lord Dunsany, after much deliberation, gave the land and buildings to the State, keeping only the privileges to the river and to fish there.  [Information and Image Credit : Trim_Castle, Wikipedia] [Image : The Keep and Curtain Walls of Trim Castle ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic ; Wikipedia-Image-Author :: Andrew Parnell (Please Also Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia Source Image URL ::   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Trim_Castle_6.jpg ]   #Architecture