@Heritage Architecture
20-Apr-2024 03 am
 

Located in Piazza Bocca della Verità, the ancient Forum Boarium in Rome, Italy, is the Temple of Hercules Victor, also known as Hercules Olivarius. It is a Roman temple. It is a tholos, a circular temple with a colonnade encircling it and a Greek Peripteral style. Due to its layout, it was mistaken for a Vesta temple until Camille de Tournon, Prefect of Rome of Napoleon, made the precise identification. There is a folktale that says that neither dogs nor flies will be allowed into the Temple of Hercules, even though the Forum Boarium served as livestock market of Rome in antiquity. The temple is the oldest largely intact marble structure still standing in Rome and is the sole one composed of Greek marble. Built in the latter part of the 2nd century BC, either by Marcus Octavius Herrenus or L. Mummius Achaicus—the conqueror of the Achaeans and the annihilator of Corinth—the temple has a diameter of 14.8 meters and is made up of a circular cella surrounded by a concentric ring of twenty Corinthian columns. Nineteen of the twenty initial columns and the original travertine of the cella and marble block wall still stand; the tile roof that is currently in place was put in later. Ten columns in the temple were substituted with Luna marble in the first century AD, following some type of calamity. The marble was a close but not perfect reproduction of the predecessor. The temple was transformed into Santo Stefano alle Carozze, a church, around 1132. The temple was further transformed into a Christian church and dedicated to Santo Stefano by Innocent II in 1140. The church was re-dedicated to Santa Maria del Sole in the seventeenth century. The neighboring surface was reduced and the temple was renovated once more between 1809 and 1810. 1935 saw the temple being officially designated as an ancient monument, and in 1996 it underwent restoration. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
18-Apr-2024 03 pm
 

Discovered on Pagans Hill at Chew Stoke in the English county of Somerset, the Pagans Hill Roman Temple was a Romano-British type structure. Presumably dedicated to the god Mercury, the temple was originally constructed in the late third century and headed east. Second temple was constructed after the previous structure collapsed, but it too collapsed and fell into ruin. An interior screen was added in the last reconstruction, which took place after roughly 367 CE. The most current dateable coin was of Arcadius, 383–408, and was discovered at the location. The fifth century saw the fall of the last structure. The temple is located on what is appropriately called Pagans Hill, however the name of the road has no connection to the temple and is a more recent addition. This double-octagonal temple structure had an outside wall that formed an ambulatory, or enclosed passageway, and an interior wall that constituted the cella, or sanctuary. Each wall was roughly three feet thick. Two elements that Rahtz identified as buttresses were located alongside each wall; however, given their tiny size, it is more probable that they were pilasters. Together with the octagonal temple and sacred spring, the location created a sizable pilgrimage centre complete with lodgings for guests and residence of a priest. A peculiar sculpture of a dog wearing a collar was discovered in the well, which was located about 15 meters to the west of the temple footings, among other artifacts. A bucket and an unusual glass jar from the 7th century that were discovered in the well provide proof that the area was still in use after the Roman era. When the temple was first discovered in 1830, it was believed to have served as a beacon for indicating between nearby hill forts. #History #Architecture

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@Heritage Architecture
17-Apr-2024 12 am
 

The Będzin Castle is located in the southern Polish city of Będzin. The wooden stronghold, which was built in the eleventh century, predates the forteenthth-century stone castle. It served as a crucial defense for the Polish Kingdom and, subsequently, for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The origins of Będzin village date back to the ninth century. The wooden fort in the area, which dates back to the eleventh century according to documents, was destroyed in 1241 during the Tatar invasion and then again reconstructed. The timber fortification was replaced by a stone castle during the reign of Casimir III the Great. As early as 1348, the stone castle was in use. Not long afterward, in 1358, the burgeoning trading settlement of Bytom was granted city powers under the Magdeburg Law. The castle was intended to serve as a military outpost on the southwest frontier of the Kingdom of Poland and later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was the furthest westward stronghold, designed to fend off any assault from Bohemian or Silesian areas toward Lesser Poland. The castle was visited in 1364 by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. Maximilian III, the Archduke of Austria, was imprisoned here in 1588 following his loss in the 1587–1588 War of the Polish Succession. The late 16th century saw the fortress fall into decay. The further devastation was caused by the fire in 1616 and the damage sustained during The Deluge in 1657. Although the stronghold was regularly restored, its significance diminished as frontiers of Poland and its ties with its neighbors changed. Following the division of Poland, Prussian rule over Będzin resulted in the Hohenzollern dynasty gaining ownership of the castle. The adjacent areas were given to the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 and the Congress of Poland in 1815. When a stone fragment squashed a bystander in 1825, the nearly collapsing castle was directed to be demolished. However, the castle was designated as a monument before any work was done on it. Count Edward Raczyński purchased the castle in the 1830s, had it largely renovated, and briefly placed a Protestant chapel therein. However, after Raczyński passed away in 1845, hopes to construct an academy or hospital there were shelved, and the castle once more fell into neglect. It was not until the Peoples Republic of Poland, from 1952 to 1956, that the castle was reconstructed and turned into a museum. #History #Architecture #Castles

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@Monuments and Architecture
16-Apr-2024 10 pm
 

In the Angus region of Scotland, Glamis Castle is located next to the community of the same name. The Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne resides there, and it is a public residence. The Lyon family has resided at Glamis Castle since the fourteenth century, however the current structure primarily originates from the seventeenth century. The late Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother, grew up in Glamis Castle. On August 21, 1930, Princess Margaret, her second daughter, was born there. The grounds of the castle are listed on the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes of Scotland, a national listing of noteworthy gardens, and are safeguarded as a category A listed building. There are prehistoric remnants in the area around Glamis Castle. For instance, the Eassie Stone, a well-known Pictish stone with exquisite carvings, was discovered in a creekbed at the nearby village of Eassie. Malcolm II was assassinated in 1034 at the Royal Hunting Lodge in Glamis. The Macbeth character in the play by William Shakespeare stays at Glamis Castle, despite the fact that the real King Macbeth had no relation to the castle. A castle was erected at Glamis by 1372, as the husband of the daughter of the king, Sir John Lyon, Thane of Glamis, received the property from Robert II in that same year. Early in the fifteenth century, the castle was rebuilt as an L-plan tower house. Sir Patrick Lyon, grandson of Sir John, was given the title Lord Glamis in 1445. During the conflict between James V and the Douglases, John Lyon, 6th Lord Glamis, married Janet Douglas, daughter of the Master of Angus. Janet faced treason charges in December 1528 for transporting followers of Angus to Edinburgh. After that, she was accused of poisoning her late husband, Lord Glamis, who had passed away on September 17, 1528. She was eventually charged with witchcraft, and on July 17, 1537, at Edinburgh, she was executed by burning at the stake. After that, James V captured Glamis and made his home there for a while. Glamis was given back to John Lyon, 7th Lord Glamis, in 1543. Patrick Lyon, the ninth Lord Glamis, was made Earl of Kinghorne in 1606. He started the major development of the castle. Glamis was garrisoned by soldiers during the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Upon his return to the castle in 1670, Patrick Lyon, 3rd Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, discovered it was unusable. Up to 1689, repairs were made, and a sizable Baroque garden was created. The early 19th century saw the reconstruction of the south-west wing following a fire. The Dining Room is one of several interiors that also comes from the 18th and 19th centuries. The back of ten-pound notes printed by the Royal Bank of Scotland has included an image of the castle since 1987 #History #Architecture #Castles

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[Contents on Wikipedia is covered by -- Disclaimer -- [Wikipedia-Disclaimer-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:General_disclaimer ] [Contents in this Website is also covered by Disclaimer linked at the bottom of the Page]  [This article means no intellectual appropriation by any way and only wishes to contribute in sharing of knowledge]










@Monuments and Architecture
13-Apr-2024 01 am
 

Situated in the village of Carisbrooke on the Isle of Wight in England, Carisbrooke Castle is a historic motte and bailey castle. In the months leading up to his trial, Charles I was held captive at the castle. There may have been pre-Roman habitation on the site of Carisbrooke Castle. There may have been a building there in late Roman times based on the remains of a wall. Wihtgar, the cousin of King Cynric of Wessex, is said to have died in AD 544 and was buried there according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. By the late 7th century, the fort might have been occupied by the Jutes. The location was home to an Anglo-Saxon stronghold in the eighth century. In order to protect the hill against Viking incursions, a wall was constructed around it circa AD 1000. Family of Richard de Redvers owned the castle from 1100 until his descendants enhanced it with stone walls, towers, and a keep during the course of the following two centuries. Edward I purchased the castle in 1293 from the last Redvers inhabitant, Countess Isabella de Fortibus. From that point on, wardens, acting as delegates of the monarch, were given control over it. During rule of Richard II in 1377, the French attempted an unsuccessful raid on the fortress. The story goes that Peter de Heyno, a local hero, shot the French commander and saved it. In 1467, Anthony Woodville, the future Earl Rivers was granted the castle and the Lordship. During era of Henry I, the keep was erected to the castle, and during reign of Elizabeth I, Sir George Carey, who had been appointed Governor of the Isle of Wight in 1583, fortified it further when the Spanish Armada was anticipated. Later, Carey hired Federigo Giambelli, an Italian engineer, to strengthen the defenses even more. Beginning in 1597, Giambelli built a contemporary trace Italienne fortress that encircled the old castle and bailey entirely. It consisted of a squat rampart and ditch, periodically reinforced by strong bastions. Before his execution in 1649, Charles I spent fourteen months in prison here. Princess Beatrice, the daughter of Queen Victoria, lived there as the Governor of the Isle of Wight from 1896 until 1944. English Heritage is presently in charge of it [Information and Image Credit : Carisbrooke_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carisbrooke_Castle ] [Image : The interior of Carisbrooke Castle; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Geni] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carisbrooke_castle_buildings_2023.JPG ] #History #Architecture #Castles 










@Monuments and Architecture
11-Apr-2024 07 pm
 

The castle ruin known as Pontefract Castle is located in the English West Yorkshire town of Pontefract. It is believed that King Richard II passed away there. It saw several well-known sieges during the English Civil War in the seventeenth century. Built in around 1070, Ilbert de Lacy built the castle atop a rock above All Saints Church, to the east of the town, on property that William the Conqueror had given him in exchange for his assistance during the Norman Conquest. Nonetheless, there is proof that the location was occupied in the past. The castle was originally made of wood, but over time, stone was added. Ilberts Castle was mentioned in the Domesday Survey of 1086, most likely referring to Pontefract Castle. In the 12th century, Robert de Lacy was not present to assist King Henry I when he was fighting his brother for control of the castle. For the Honour of Pontefract, Roger de Lacy gave King Richard I 3,000 marks, but the King kept the fortress. In 1199, the year John came to the throne, his successor King John awarded de Lacy the castle. Eldest son of John, Roger, succeeded him after his death in 1213. Nevertheless, Castle Donington and Pontefract Castle were seized by the King. Up until the early 14th century, the de Lacy family resided in the fortress. During the tenure of the de Lacys, the beautiful multilobate donjon was constructed. The estates of the House of Lancaster inherited the castle by marriage in 1311. Six days following his defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 1278–1322, was executed outside the castle walls as a result of a sentence imposed on him in the great hall by King Edward II. Because of this, the earl was martyred and his tomb at Pontefract Priory was turned into a shrine. The third son of King Edward III, John of Gaunt, received it after Henry, Duke of Lancaster. He turned the castle into his own home and lavished enormous sums of money on renovations. On June 25, 1483 in Pontefract Castle, brother of Elizabeth Woodville i.e. Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers and her son Sir Richard Grey were murdered by Richard III. Thomas Darcy, 1st Baron Darcy de Darcy, the custodian of the castle, gave the castle to the organizers of the Pilgrimage of Grace, a northern English Catholic uprising against King Henry VIII, in 1536. Because the monarch considered purported surrender of Lord Darcy to be treasonous, he was put to death. The fortress was occupied by King Henry VIII of England, who arrived on August 23, 1541, as part of his summer royal tour of the North. King James visited Pontefract Castle on April 19, 1603, while traveling south to London, and spent the night at the Bear Inn in Doncaster. The castle was part of English jointure property of his wife Anne of Denmark. At the outset of the English Civil War, Pontefract Castle was under the control of Royalists. December 1644 saw the start of the first of three sieges, which lasted until March 1644, when Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale of Holme, came with Royalist reinforcements and the Parliamentarian army withdrew. Artillery and mining activities during the siege caused damage, which led to the collapse of the Piper Tower. Oliver Cromwell led the last siege of Pontefract Castle in November 1648. Charles I was put to death in January. The defenders at Pontefract reached an agreement, and on March 24, 1649, Colonel Morrice turned over the castle to Major General John Lambert. On March 27, Parliament issued an order directing that Pontefract Castle be completely destroyed, leveled to the ground, and its belongings sold off. Tearing down the castle slowly after the main organized activity of slighting may have added to its ruinous state. Nonetheless, visitors can still tour the 11th-century cellars of the castle, which were used for keeping military hardware during the Civil War [Information and Image Credit : Pontefract_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontefract_Castle ] [Image : Early 17th-century painting in the Pontefract Castle Museum by Alexander Keirincx] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The author died in 1652, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of author plus 100 years or fewer. This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1929. (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pontefract_Castle.jpg ] #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
08-Apr-2024 05 pm
 

In Tattershall, Lincolnshire, England, there is a castle called Tattershall Castle. Robert de Tattershall constructed a stone castle or a fortified manor house in 1231, which is where Tattershall Castle got its start. Between 1430 and 1450, Ralph Cromwell, 3rd Baron Cromwell, the Treasurer of England, completely renovated and expanded this using bricks. In England, brick castles are less prevalent than stone, earth, and timber structures; when brick was used for construction, it was frequently done so for aesthetic or fashion reasons. The Flemish weavers started the habit of employing bricks. Although there was an abundance of stone in the area, Cromwell decided to utilize brick. Constructed with over 700,000 bricks, the castle has been hailed as the best example of English medieval brickwork. The moat and the 130-foot Great Tower of the fortress made by Lord Cromwell are still intact. The three state rooms of the castle are believed to have originally been exquisitely furnished, with massive Gothic fireplaces that adorned the apartments with tapestries and chimney pieces. The castle was allegedly an early example of a residential country home disguising itself as a fortress. After Oliver Cromwell died in 1456, his niece Joan Bouchier initially inherited the castle. However, following the death of her husband, the Crown seized the property, and it was owned by the royal family from King Edward IV to King Henry VIII. After recovering Tattershall Castle in 1560, Sir Henry Sidney sold it to Lord Clinton, who would go on to become the Earl of Lincoln. The Earls of Lincoln owned Tattershall Castle until 1693. After passing to the Fortesques, it was neglected. In 1910, it was listed for sale. The enormous medieval fireplaces, its finest treasures, remained intact. They had been torn apart and packed for shipping when an American purchased them. At the last minute, Lord Curzon of Kedleston intervened to purchase the castle, and he was adamant about recovering the fireplaces back. They were located in London and brought back following a nationwide search. From 1911 and 1914, he worked on the renovation of castles. After he passed away in 1925, one of the three most significant mid-15th-century brick castles still standing in the United Kingdom was given to the National Trust. Lord Curzon advocated for historic protection legislation in Britain as a result of the Tattershall tragedy, and the Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act 1913 was the result [Information and Image Credit : Tattershall_Castle,_Lincolnshire, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tattershall_Castle,_Lincolnshire ] [Image : Great Tower of Tattershall Castle with its three different entrances; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Brian from UK]  [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tattershall_Castle,_2006.jpg#History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
07-Apr-2024 12 am
 

Situated in Granada, Andalusia, Spain, the Alhambra is a complex of palaces and fortifications. Muhammad I Ibn al-Ahmar, the first Nasrid emir and the founder of the Emirate of Granada, started construction on the complex in 1238. It was constructed on the Sabika hill, an offshoot of the Sierra Nevada that had previously hosted forts and palace of Samuel ibn Naghrillah from the eleventh century. The location was repeatedly altered by later Nasrid monarchs. The greatest building projects, which contributed significantly to the defining characteristics of royal palaces, were carried out in the fourteenth century under Yusuf I and Muhammad V. The Alhambra was a stand-alone city apart from the rest of Granada during the Nasrid dynasty. It was a royal city and fortification with at least six great palaces, the most of which overlooked the Albaicín sector from their location along the northern perimeter. The Mexuar, Comares Palace, Palace of the Lions, and Partal Palace are the most well-known and well-preserved, and they serve as the primary draw for tourists today. Both contemporary excavations and historical records provide information on the other palaces. Afterwards, the palaces underwent some modifications and the location became the Royal Court of Ferdinand and Isabella. Charles V ordered a new palace in the Renaissance style in 1526 to be built in stark contrast to the Nasrid palaces, but it was abandoned in the early 17th century. Following defeat of Napoleon I, when his forces demolished portions of the site, the Alhambra was found after being abandoned for years and its structures occupied by squatters. Initially, British intellectuals led the rediscovery efforts, followed by other American and Northern European Romantic explorers. Washington Irving was the most significant of them all; his Tales of the Alhambra, published in 1832, made the location famous around the world. Known for its remarkable instances of Spanish Renaissance architecture, it is also one of the most well-known monuments of Islamic architecture and one of the best-preserved palaces of the old Islamic world. It is one of the most famous monuments of Islamic architecture and one of the best-preserved palaces of the historic Islamic world, in addition to containing notable examples of Spanish Renaissance architecture. [Information and Image Credit : Alhambra, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alhambra ] [Image : Dawn on Charles V palace in Alhambra, Granada, Spain; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Jebulon] [The Image (file) is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. The person who associated a work with this deed has dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of their rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law. One can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dawn_Charles_V_Palace_Alhambra_Granada_Andalusia_Spain.jpg ] #History #Architecture #Castles 










@Monuments and Architecture
05-Apr-2024 09 pm
 

Located in the English county of East Sussex, Lewes Castle is a medieval stronghold. Once known as Bray Castle, it stands sentinel over the gap in the South Downs created by the River Ouse, in which the towns of Cliffe and Lewes are situated. Built from native limestone and flint stones, it is situated on an artificial hill north of the main street of Lewes. The only other castle in England with a motte and bailey layout is Lincoln Castle. The castle, however, is unique in that it has two mottes. Following the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, the first motte, known as Brack Mount, was finished, and the second motte, known as the Keep, was finished in the late 11th century. William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, built both mottes. At the beginning of the 12th century, brick shell keeps took the place of the wooden palisades that had hitherto topped the mottes. There was a stone wall with towers in the Bailey area as well. At the Battle of Lewes in 1264, soldiers withdrew from the fortress to fight Simon de Montfort. One of the shell keeps had towers erected to it in the thirteenth century, and a barbican gate was added in the fourteenth. Following his untimely death in 1347, John, the 7th Earl of Warennes, was laid to rest in Lewes Priory. His nephew Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, inherited his title. The Sussex Archaeological Society began renting the castle in 1850. Charles Thomas-Stanford later purchased the castle and gave it to the organization in 1922 [Information and Image Credit : Lewes_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewes_Castle ] [Image : Two towers of Lewes Castle in East Sussex, seen from the west; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Antiquary] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lewes_Castle_towers.JPG ] #History #Architecture #Castles 










@Monuments and Architecture
05-Apr-2024 02 am
 

In the central Iranian province of Fars, the town of Izadkhast is home to the Izad Khast Castle. Constructed during the Sassanid dynasty rule, 224 and 651 AD, the castle served as a walled city fortification along the old Silk Road that passed across central Iran. After Arg-e Bam, it is the second-largest adobe structure in the world. Perched on a high bedrock with a commanding view of the Izadkhast valley lies the castle. Many little passageways and alleys that wind through centuries-old tiny cottages and structures may be found inside the castle walls. On August 9, 2007, the castle and the Izadkhast complex around it were nominated in the Cultural category for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List. Situated between Shiraz and Isfahan on the historic Silk Road lies the Izad-khast fortress. The location is surrounded by a desert and is in the middle of nowhere. But in the midst of this nowhere, a high single bedrock overlooking a valley provided the perfect setting for the construction of a fortified desert metropolis. Built around the bedrock, the fortification walls of the castle are tall, nearly perpendicular, and span six to fifteen meters on three sides. Because of the natural topography of the site and additional fortifications, the castle was one of the hardest places for foes and criminals to access in antiquity. The location and construction style of the castle exhibit distinctive features. Materially speaking, nonetheless, it is similar to the Citadel of Bam, Rayen, and other neighboring locations in the provinces of Yazd and Kerman [Information and Image Credit : Izad-Khast_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Izad-Khast_Castle ]  [Image : View of Izadkhast Castle in August 2018.; Wikipedia-Image-Author :  Hadi Karimi] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Izadkhast_Castle_by_Hadi_Karimi.jpg#History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
05-Apr-2024 12 am
 

The first and most significant temple of Rome devoted to the Magna Mater, also known as the Great Mother, or Cybele as the Greeks called her, was called the Temple of Cybele or the Temple of Magna Mater. It was constructed to hold a specific image or form of the goddess, a meteoric stone that was briefly placed in the Palatine temple of goddess of Victory and brought to Rome in 204 BC at the request of an oracle from Greek Asia Minor. On April 11, 191 BC, the proscenium of the new temple hosted inaugural Megalesia celebration of Magna Mater. Situated on the elevated western flank of the Palatine, the temple had a commanding view of the Circus Maximus valley and faced the Ceres-temple situated atop the Aventine mountains. The flattened space, or proscenium, below, where the festival sports and plays in honour of the Goddess were staged, was reached by a long flight of steps rising higher. From the proscenium as well as the inside of the temple, one could see the goddess-altar. After the first temple burned down in 111 BC, a Metellus—possibly Gaius Caecilius Metellus Caprarius—restored it. In the early Imperial Empire, it burnt twice more, but Augustus rebuilt it each time, the second reconstruction being arguably the more opulent of the two. A figure of Cybele enthroned with lion attendants and a turreted crown sits atop the steps. This is in line with a massive, broken statue of the goddess that was discovered inside the temple grounds. Up to the late 4th century, the temple was still in operation [Information and Image Credit : Temple_of_Cybele_(Palatine), Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Cybele_(Palatine) ] [Image : Magna Mater Temple on a relief currently displayed at Villa Medici of Rome; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Sailko]  [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Controfacciata_di_villa_medici,_rilievi_romani_13_victimarii_conducono_un_bue_e_al_Tempio_della_Magna_Mater_sul_Palatino_(ara_gentis_Iuliae)_2.jpg#History #Art #Architecture 










@Monuments and Architecture
04-Apr-2024 02 am
 

Rome, Italy is home to the ancient Roman temple known as the Temple of Portunus. It was constructed next to the Forum Boarium, the ancient Roman cattle market connected to Hercules, which was next to the Pons Aemilius, the oldest stone bridge over the Tiber River and oldest river port of Rome. Given that there were multiple other temples in the vicinity in addition to Portunus, the exact dedication is still unknown, but it was most likely made in honor of the gateway deity. It is still more often known by this name despite being mistakenly labeled as the Renaissance Temple of Fortuna Virilis. Of all the Roman temples, this one is among the best preserved. It is the primary temple in the city devoted to Portunus, the deity of keys, doors, animals, and therefore granaries. The temple was transformed into a Christian church honoring Santa Maria Egyziaca throughout the Middle Ages. Up until the early 20th century, it was still a church. However, at that time, it was deconsecrated, all later alterations removed, and its classical aspect was restored as an archeological monument. As part of its repair, nearby buildings from the Renaissance and Middle Ages were demolished. Located in the historic Forum Boarium by the Tiber, the Ionic Temple had a commanding view of the Tiberine harbor during antiquity, where Portunus kept watch over cattle barges arriving in the city from Ostia. The temple was renovated between 120 and 80 BC, having been constructed in the third or fourth century BC. Its rectangular structure, which is still intact, is made up of a tetrastyle portico and cella, erected on a high podium that is accessed by stairs. Its pronaos portico, which has two columns deep and four Ionic columns across, is reminiscent of the Maison Carrée in Nîmes. The columns of the portico are free-standing, while the four columns at the back and the other five on the long sides are half-columns that are positioned against the walls of the cella  [Information and Image Credit : Temple_of_Portunus, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Portunus ] [Image : Temple of Portunus in the Forum Boarium; Wikipedia-Image-Author : WikiRomaWiki]  [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ]  [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Temple_of_Portunus.jpg ] #History #Art #Architecture 










@Monuments and Architecture
02-Apr-2024 03 am
 

Located in Trieste, northeastern Italy, between Barcola and Grignano, lies the 19th-century Miramare Castle. Based on a design by Carl Junker, it was constructed for the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium, who would later become Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico and Empress Carlota of Mexico, between 1856 and 1860. The archduke created a vast 22-hectare seaside and cliff park as part of the castle-grounds. The archduke thoroughly redesigned the landscaping with a variety of tropical tree and plant types. Ferdinand Maximilian, 1832–1867, of the House of Habsburg–Lorraine, the younger brother of Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria, gave the order to build Miramare Castle and its grounds. When Maximilian arrived in Trieste in 1850, accompanied by his brother Charles, he was eighteen years old. He then promptly embarked on a brief voyage to the Near East. His goal to sail and see the world was validated by this voyage. He was made an officer in 1852, and the Imperial Navy appointed him Commander in Chief in 1854. He made the decision to go to Trieste, where he had a house erected with a view of the sea and a park fitting of his status and name. Tradition has it that the archduke picked that barren rocky spur of limestone origin as the location for his house after taking refuge in the small harbor of Grignano during a sudden storm in the Gulf. The entire complex was dubbed Miramar when it was initially acquired at the start of March 1856, presumably in remembrance of the residence of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry in Pena, Portugal [Information and Image Credit : Miramare_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miramare_Castle ] [Image : Miramare Castle; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Michał Bulsa] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Castello_di_Miramare_(Trieste)_(7).jpg ] #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
01-Apr-2024 08 pm
 

Situated in the Beqaa Valley in Lebanon, the Temple of Bacchus is a part of the Baalbek archeological site. The temple complex was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1984 and is regarded as an exceptional archaeological and artistic example of Imperial Roman architecture. One of the most magnificent and well-preserved Roman temple remains is this monument to Bacchus. Although its exact age is unclear, its exquisite decoration may be traced back to the second century CE. The Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, who ruled from AD 138 to AD 161, most likely ordered the temple. The site was unknown until the Greeks conquered it in the fourth century, by which time the temple had probably closed because of the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire. Not until 1898–1903 did a German mission start excavating two of the larger temples and rebuilding the area. The Lebanese government ordered the preservation of the site and renovations in 1920 following the proclamation of the State of Greater Lebanon. Protection of the site was discontinued after the Lebanese civil war broke out in the mid-1970s and Al-Biqā turned into a stronghold for Syrian and Palestinian forces. The Baalbek ruins were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1984. After the war ended in the 1990s, the place started to be preserved. Measuring 66 meters in length, 35 meters in width, and 31 meters in height, the temple is marginally smaller than the Temple of Jupiter. The temple is situated on a podium that runs east-west. A colonnade of forty-two unfluted Corinthian columns with Ionic bases, nineteen of which remain intact, adorns the periphery wall. Inside, two levels of niches on either side are flanked by Corinthian pilasters that adorn the cella. Even upto the sixteenth century, the gateway itself remained intact. Numerous archaeological excavations and studies on The Temple of Bacchus and the complete temple complex have been conducted by the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute. Research and evaluation of the site are ongoing. Examples include recording sculptures and reliefs, studying the fauna found in the ruins through the lens of archaeozoology, and examining urban growth and its connection to Baalbek [Information and Image Credit : Temple_of_Bacchus, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Bacchus ] [Image : Temple of Bacchus; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Jan Hilgers] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Original Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Baalbek_Baccustempel.jpg ]   #History #Art #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
30-Mar-2024 11 pm
 

Located in the French department of Eure, the town of Gisors is home to the Château de Gisors. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the castle served as a vital stronghold for the Normandy dukes. Its goal was to keep the King of France from invading the Anglo-Norman Vexin area. Robert of Bellême was given the order by King William II of England to construct the first castle at Gisors. The octagonal stone keep atop the motte was constructed by Henry I of England as part of his mission to fortify Normandy against the ambitions of the French monarchy. Henry I also erected the royal castle at Gisors. It witnessed the building of about twenty-five castles. During the imprisonment of King Richard I of England in Germany in 1193, the castle, which was commanded by Gilbert de Vascoeuil, was taken over by King Philip II of France. Following demise of Richard in 1199, Philip went on to conquer a significant portion of the remaining Normandy, which resulted in decline of Gisors in significance as a frontier castle. The connection of the castle to the Templars is another well-known fact, under the administration of the French king from 1158 to 1160. It was the last jail of the Grand Master of the Order Jacques de Molay until 1314. The first construction, which dates to around 1095, was a motte encompassed by a large courtyard or bailey. The motte was enhanced with an octagonal stone keep by Henry I, Duke of Normandy, of England. Important reinforcement work carried out after 1161 saw this keep elevated and expanded, the wooden palisade of the motte turned to stone, creating a chemise, and the outside wall of the bailey finished in stone with flanking towers. One of the best surviving specimens of a shell keep is said to be the octagonal keep. The bailey is thought to have held 1,000 men, but in 1438 there were only 90 English soldiers in the garrison. This had dropped to 43 by 1448. The French Ministry of Culture has designated the Château de Gisors as a historical monument since 1862  [Information and Image Credit : Château_de_Gisors, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Gisors ] [Image : The original octagonal keep and chemise of Gisors; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Nitot] [Image Availed Under  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chateau-de-Gisors.jpg ] #History  #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
30-Mar-2024 01 am
 

Located in the southern French city of Nîmes, the Maison carrée is one of the best-preserved Roman temples still standing in the former Roman Empire. It is a caesareum, a medium-sized Augustan provincial temple of the Imperial religion. The Maison carrée was re-dedicated to Gaius and Lucius Caesar, the adoptive grandsons and heirs of Augustus who both passed away at a young age, in the years 4-7 AD. In the Middle Ages, the inscription honoring Gaius and Lucius was erased from the temple. Nonetheless, in 1758, a scholar from the area named Jean-François Séguier managed to piece together the inscription by counting the holes on the front frieze and architrave, which were used to hold the bronze letters that were attached with protruding tines. Victor Grangent helped the temple gradually regain its former splendor during the 19th century. Despite using the Corinthian order, the Maison carrée resembles a Roman temple in the Tuscan style as described by the contemporary Roman architect Vitruvius. The neoclassical Église de la Madeleine in Paris, the St. Marcellinus Church in Rogalin, Poland, and the Virginia State Capitol of  United States—designed by Thomas Jefferson, who had a stucco replica of the Maison carrée made while serving as minister of France in 1785—were all influenced by the Maison carrée. The Maison carrée of Nîmes was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in September 2023  [Information and Image Credit : Maison_carrée, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maison_carr%C3%A9e ] [Image : Front view of the Temple; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Fabhuard] [Image Availed Under  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maison_carr%C3%A9e_(3).jpg#History #Art #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
29-Mar-2024 07 pm
 

Henry VIII built Pendennis Castle, an artillery fort, in the vicinity of Falmouth, Cornwall, England, between 1540 and 1542. As a component of the Kings Device initiative, it safeguarded the Carrick Roads waterway at the mouth of the River Fal from French and Holy Roman Empire invasions. The earlier castle was surrounded by a ring of substantial stone ramparts and bastions by the end of the century to fend off the growing Spanish threat. The original, circular keep and gun platform was retained. Pendennis was held by the Royalists during the English Civil War and was only captured by Parliament in 1646 following an extended siege. After Charles II was reinstated in 1660, he restored the fortress, which had withstood the interregnum. Defenses of Pendennis were updated and modernized in the 1730s and 1790s because to persistent fears of a potential French invasion; the castle could have up to 48 guns during the Napoleonic Wars. In order to bolster these defenses, new, fast-firing guns were added in the 1880s and 1890s. An electrically driven minefield was also erected across the River Fal, controlled from Pendennis and St Mawes. After being rearmed during World War I but seeing no action, the castle was rearmed again during World War II and saw battle against German Luftwaffe aircraft. By 1956, however, the castle had become obsolete and was dismantled. The Ministry of Works took over management of the site, demolishing several of the more contemporary military structures and making it accessible to the public. English Heritage is in charge of running the castle as a tourist destination in the twenty-first century. Pendennis is regarded by the heritage organization Historic England as one of the best specimens of a post-medieval defensive promontory fort in the nation [Information and Image Credit : Pendennis_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pendennis_Castle ] [Image : 16th-century gun platform and keep; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Willhsmit] [The copyright holder of this work, have released this work into the public domain. This applies worldwide (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pendennis_Castle.jpg ] #History #Art #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
28-Mar-2024 03 am
 

The Heliodorus pillar is a stone column located in Besnagar, Madhya Pradesh, in central India. It was constructed in 113 BCE. Heliodorus dubbed the pillar the Garuda-standard, after the god Garuda. The pillar bears the common name Heliodorus, who served as an ambassador from Taxila to the Indian emperor Bhagabhadra on behalf of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas. The pillar bore a dedication to venerable Vāsudeva, the Deva deva, or referred to as the God of Gods and the Supreme Deity, written in Brahmi script. The pillar also exalts Bhagabhadra the Savior, the ruler of India. The column is a Stambha, signifying the union of earth, space, and heaven. It is believed to represent the cosmic axis and convey the cosmic entirety of the Deity. Alexander Cunningham made the discovery of the pillar in 1877. The pillar has been identified as a component of an ancient Vāsudeva temple site by two significant archaeological investigations conducted in the 20th century. Apart from sacred texts like the Bhagavad Gita, the Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions and the epigraphical inscriptions on the Heliodorus pillar have some of the earliest known writings of early Vaishnavism and Vāsudeva-Krishna devotion, and are regarded as the first archeological proof of its continued existence. One of the oldest surviving accounts of a foreign conversion to Vaishnavism, according to some, is the pillar [Information and Image Credit : Heliodorus_pillar, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliodorus_pillar ] [Image : Heliodorus pillar in Vidisha, India; Wikipedia-Image-Author :  Dilipkumarftii1977] [Image is availed under  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Heliodorus_pillar_(cropped).jpg ] #History #Art #Architecture 










@Heritage and Geographical Sites
19-Mar-2024 05 am
 

Three stone circles surround the Neolithic henge monument known as Avebury, which is located in Wiltshire, southwest England around the village of Avebury. The largest megalithic stone circle in the world can be found at this, one of the most well-known prehistoric sites in Britain. For modern pagans, it is a site of religious significance in addition to being a popular tourist destination. The Neolithic, or New Stone Age, monument was built over several hundred years during the third millennium BC. It consists of a massive henge with two smaller stone circles inside the center of the monument and a larger outer stone circle. Although archaeologists are unsure of its initial use, they assume it was probably part of a ritual or ceremony. The Avebury monument is a portion of a broader prehistoric landscape that also includes West Kennet Long Barrow, Windmill Hill and Silbury Hill, three neighboring older monuments. Although there was minor evidence of human habitation throughout the Roman era, the site had essentially been abandoned by the Iron Age. A hamlet was first constructed around the monument in the Early Middle Ages, and it later extended inside of it. Many of the standing stones surrounding the henge were destroyed by the locals in the Late Medieval and Early Modern eras, for both utilitarian and religious purposes. In the 17th century, Avebury piqued the curiosity of antiquarians John Aubrey and William Stukeley, who documented a large portion of the site before to its demolition. The twentieth century saw the start of archaeological research, which was mostly overseen by Alexander Keiller, who directed a project that involved reconstructing a large portion of the monument. The National Trust is the owner and manager of Avebury. It has been included as a World Heritage Site and a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The latter designation recognizes it as a component of the larger prehistoric Wiltshire landscape known as Stonehenge, Avebury, and Associated Sites [Information and Image Credit : Avebury, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avebury ] [Image: The stone avenue; Wikipedia-Image Author : Dickbauch] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ASC_Allee_1_db.jpg ] #History #Architecture










@Heritage and Geographical Sites
12-Mar-2024 12 am
 

Castlerigg Stone Circle is located in the Lake District National Park in North West England, on a notable hill to the east of Keswick. It is one of about 1,300 stone circles found in the British Isles and Brittany. They were built as a part of a megalithic tradition that dates back to the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Ages, roughly 3,200 BC to 2500 BC. Numerous archaeologists have praised Castlerigg and the surrounding countryside for its beauty and romanticism. Some of the tallest peaks in Cumbria, including Helvellyn, Skiddaw, Grasmoor, and Blencathra, can be seen from within the circle formed by this plateau, which is the elevated center of a natural amphitheater formed by the surrounding fells. The boulders were probably once a component of the glacial till deposit that Castle Rigg is situated on. A flattened circle holds the stones in place. The tallest stone is around 2.3 meters high, while the largest stone is estimated to weigh about 16 tons. Its northern margin has a 3.3 m wide opening that could have been an entrance. Like other stone circles in Britain, Castlerigg is said to contain an infinite number of stones; any attempt to count them will yield a new number each time. But perhaps this custom is not that far from the reality. Many smaller stones have appeared close to some of the larger stones as a result of soil erosion surrounding the stones brought on by the high volume of visitors to the monument. These small stones would have previously been hidden, as they were probably packing stones during the construction of the circle, supporting the larger stones. It is unknown what the initial intentions were when Castlerigg was built, what purposes it served afterwards, and whether these have evolved over time. According to current theory, Castlerigg was involved in the Neolithic Langdale axe trade on the surrounding Langdale fells; it is possible that the circle served as a hub for the exchange or trading of these axes. Stone axes that were deposited ritualistically have been discovered all throughout Britain, indicating that their applications were far more extensive than their useful lives. It might not have been feasible to trade or exchange stone axes without first taking part in a ceremonial or ritual [Information and Image Credit : Castlerigg_stone_circle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castlerigg_stone_circle ] [Image : Castlerigg Stone Circle; Wikipedia-Image Author : NickW] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Castlerigg_Stone_Circle.JPG ] #History #Architecture










@Heritage and Geographical Sites
11-Mar-2024 04 pm
 

Situated on the southeast border of the Sperrin Mountains, 8.5 miles northwest of Cookstown in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland, lies the complex of early Bronze Age megalithic monuments, stone circles, and cairns known as Beaghmore. The name, which represents the fact that the region was a woodland before being removed by Neolithic farmers, is thought to have come from Irish a Bheitheach Mhór, which means Big Place of Birch Trees. Carbon dating has been used to date hearths and flint tool deposits found at this site between 2900 and 2600 BC. There are multiple stone rows that cross the collapsed walls of Neolithic field constructions. There are twelve cairns, ten stone rows, and seven low stone circles of varying sizes, six of which are paired. The circles, which have a diameter of ten to twenty meters, are connected to past burial cairns, and stone row alignments point in their direction. The deformed rings and small size of the stones—few above 0.5 meters tall—indicate that they may be connected to the kerbs that encircle some megalithic tombs. The high and low arrangement of the stone rows, with short rows of tall stones running beside much longer rows of little stones, is a common feature. From the rings, the stone rows extend in an approximately northeastern direction. It is believed that the stones may have been raised in reaction to declining soil fertility and the intrusion of peat. Excavation has revealed that the site overlooks a Neolithic agriculture site.  [Information and Image Credit : Beaghmore, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beaghmore ] [Image : A stone circle at Beaghmore; Wikipedia-Image Author : Wax0nightmare] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:A_stone_circle_at_Beaghmore..jpg ] #History #Architecture 










@Heritage and Geographical Sites
09-Mar-2024 11 pm
 

In County Meath, Ireland, close to Oldcastle, lies a historically significant location known as Loughcrew or Lough Crew. Perched atop a range of hills, it is home to a collection of prehistoric tombs dating back to the fourth millennium BC, some of which are embellished with unique megalithic art. Slieve na Calliagh, the combination of the hills and tombs, is the highest point in Meath. It is a designated National Monument and one of the four principal passage tomb cemeteries of Ireland. The Loughcrew Estate, which gives the area its name, is also located there. At Loughcrew, there exist the remnants of around twenty ancient tombs. It is among the four primary passage tomb cemeteries in Ireland, with Carrowmore, Carrowkeel, and Brú na Bóinne. Four hilltops—Carnbane East, Carnbane West, Carrickbrack, and Patrickstown Hill—are home to the megalithic monuments. Together, these hills and the tombs are referred to as Slieve na Calliagh, which translates to Mountain of the Cailleach, the mythological hag of Ireland. According to legend, the monuments were made when a gigantic hag lost her load of big stones from her apron when she was walking across the area. Although a thorough dating procedure has not been carried out there, the approximate age of the monuments is 3300 BC. The monuments are made up of cruciform chambers that were formerly all covered in mounds. There are petroglyphs in a distinctive style that include circles, some encircled by radiating lines, and lozenge and leaf patterns. The native green gritstone, which was sufficiently pliable to be carved, is typically used for the orthostats and structural stones of the monuments. According to Irish legend, damaging or disrespecting such tombs is unlucky and may result in a curse. Nonetheless, security patrols have been implemented and a few of the Loughcrew tombs have been the target of graffiti vandalism. [Information and Image Credit : Loughcrew, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loughcrew ] [Image : Cairn S and Cairn T; Wikipedia-Image Author : Rob Hurson] [Image Availed Under  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property and Sharing, Remixing or Attributing the Work)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cairns_S(%3F)_and_T,_Loughcrew.jpg ] #History #Architecture 










@Art of Architecture
18-Feb-2024 12 am
 

The Ballyloughan Castle is a deserted castle with one of the finest gatehouses of Ireland that is close to Bagenalstown. The architecture of the castle implies that it was constructed by a Norman lord about the year 1300 and was most likely deserted in the fourteenth century. The castle was inhabited by the Kavangh family toward the end of the 16th century, after which it was owned by the Bagenals and then, in the 19th century, by the Bruens. This ruined castle in County Carlow is now designated as a National Monument. There is still a twin-tower gatehouse, the hall, and the foundation if the corner towers from around 1300. In close proximity to Mount Leinster, Ballyloughan is situated at the western extremity of a glacier ridge. The walls of the castle, which are up to 50 feet high and 5 feet thick in some parts, have a roughly square shape. Although the majority of the characteristics of the castle are typical of building from the 13th century, there is no information available about its early history. [Information Credit : List_of_castles_in_Ireland ; Ballyloughan_Castle] [Wikipedia-LInk : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_castles_in_Ireland ] [Original Image Credit : Ballyloughan_Castle, Wikipedia] [Image : Derivative Art of Exterior of Ballyloughan Castle] [Original Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International; Author : VisionsofthePast ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property. The Derivative Image is shareable under the Same License)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Original Source-Image URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:02._Ballyloughan_Castle,_Co._Carlow.jpg ] #Architecture #Art










@Monuments and Architecture
19-Jan-2024 03 am
 

The Wartburg is a mediaeval castle that was first constructed. In the German state of Thuringia, where it is perched 410 meters southwest of Eisenach and provides a view over the town below. St. Elisabeth of Hungary lived there, Martin Luther translated the New Testament into German there, while the Wartburg festival took place there in 1817, and it was rumored to have been the location of the fictitious Sängerkrieg. Ludwig II found great inspiration in it when he made the decision to construct Neuschwanstein Castle. After Weimar, Wartburg is the most popular tourist destination in Thuringia. The majority of the interior of the castle was built in the 19th century, despite the fact that it still has many historical structures from the 12th through the 15th centuries. Due to its historical and religious importance as well as its classic medieval architecture, Wartburg Castle was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999. The German word for watchtower, Warte, is most likely whence the castle got its name. Louis the Springer, a Thuringian count of Schauenburg and a cousin of the Counts of Rieneck in Franconia, laid the foundation of the castles in or about 1067. The Wartburg protected the farthest reaches of his ancestral lands, together with its bigger sister castle Neuenburg in the modern town of Freyburg. Louis the Springer would swear that the castle was built on his land because it is reported that he had clay from his lands brought to the top of the hill, which was not quite within his lands. The Palas, the largest building of the Wartburg, was first constructed between 1157 and 1170 in the late Romanesque style. Located north of the Alps, it is regarded as the best-preserved non-ecclesial Romanesque structure. The Palas has chambers with ancient architecture that have been restored as closely as possible to the original Romanesque style, such as the Speisesaal and the Rittersaal. Nonetheless, a large number of the rooms primarily capture the style of the 19th and 20th centuries as well as the popular perception of the Middle Ages at the period [Information Credit : Wartburg, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wartburg ] [Image Credit : List_of_castles_in_Germany, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_castles_in_Germany ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wartburg2004.JPG ] #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
18-Jan-2024 01 am
 

Located near Lassay-les-Châteaux in the department of Mayenne, the Château de Lassay is a 15th-century castle. A castrum was first recorded in Lassay in the twelfth century. Charles de Vendôme owned the castle at the start of the 15th century, but French forces destroyed it because he sided with the English during the Hundred Years War. Charles VII of France gave his son Jean II permission to create a castle in 1458. Jean II was the son of Charles de Vendôme. The new castle was finished in a single year. In 1497–1498, the barbican was constructed. Since then, the various proprietors of the castle have managed to keep most of the original 15th-century building intact. Since 1862, the castle has been recognized as a historic monument. From April through September, it is accessible to tourists [Information and Image Credit : Château_de_Lassay, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Lassay ] [Image : Castle View from the town; Wikipedia-Image Author : Romain Bréget] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ]  [Wikipedia-Source-Image URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Lassay_11.JPG ] #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
12-Jan-2024 01 am
 

Built between 1888 and 1892 on a contract from Baron Gustavius Eugenius Leo Maria Gislainus de Vrière, Zellaer Castle is located north of the center of Bonheiden. Mechelen-based architect Heugenbaarts drew out the blueprints. White sandstone from the destroyed Vilvoorde forts was utilized to construct the structure. It had to be transported by horse and cart for the farmers who relied on Zellaer. It is said by tradition to be a scaled-down replica of a castle on the Loire. No proof of this has yet to emerge. There are multiple broad moats in the park including a ring moat encircling the neo-Gothic castle. The structure currently houses a contemplation center. This location was the location of an existing castle at the time of building. It is possible that canon Arnold van Zellaer was the initial owner and that Wouter Berthout, the lord of Mechelen, was the client. The notification of the October 20, 1836, public sale still has a description of this original structure. Very old foundations were unearthed when this old castle was being dismantled. These resemble a medieval castle because they were constructed atop wooden piles that were driven into the ground; they may even be from the thirteenth century [Information and Image Credit : Kasteel_van_Zellaer, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasteel_van_Zellaer ] [Image : The facade of the castle in 2019; Wikipedia-Image Author : Paul Hermans] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ]  [Wikipedia-Source-Image URL :  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bonheiden_Kasteel_Zellaer_(2515)_28-09-2019_15-25-37.jpg ]  #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
10-Jan-2024 02 am
 

The Swiss canton of Vaud contains the castle known as Lucens Castle, which is located in the Lucens municipality. It is a nationally significant Swiss heritage site. Because of its advantageous location, the castle was able to maintain control over the Broye Valley, a crucial transit route. The Bishop of Lausanne lived there from the Middle Ages until 1536, when it was used as a means of governing his estate in the Broye Valley. The fortress was periodically destroyed and rebuilt in the 12th century. In 1476, the Swiss Confederation demolished it. Bern took control of the valley and the surrounding area in 1536. At the same time, it became the capital of a bailiwick based in Bern. The Moudon vogt took their residence at the castle in 1542. Between 1579 and 1586, it was expanded, and it functioned as a fortification and arsenal on the Fribourg frontier. After the Bernese were driven out, the Canton of Léman was established in 1798. Soon after, Canton acquired ownership of the castle and sold it to private buyers in 1801. It was transformed into a Swiss Reformed institute for girls in 1925. It is currently privately owned and served as the headquarters of Conan Doyle Foundation from 1965 until 1970 [Information and Image Credit : Lucens_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucens_Castle ] [Image : Lucens Castle; Image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by Roland Zumbühl of Picswiss]  [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image URL :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Castle_lucens.jpg ]  #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
08-Jan-2024 03 am
 

 Situated in the Italian town of Gradara, Marche, lies the ancient fortress known as the Gradara Castle. It is the towering structure, shielded by two walls, the outermost of which stretches for over 800 meters. The nighttime vista of the fortress and the medieval settlement underneath it is quite spectacular. One of the most popular tourist destinations in the area, the castle hosts musical and artistic museum activities. Due to its strategic location, Gradara has always been a hub for trade and people. In the Middle Ages, the stronghold served as a major battleground for conflicts between papal forces and the volatile Marche and Romagna families. Gradara is a remarkable urban and architectural mix, perched at 142 meters above sea level with the Republic of San Marino, Rimini, and Carpegna in the background. According to legend, the castle played host to the well-known and tragic tale of Paolo and Francesca, who were assassinated by Gianciotto, husband of Francesca, while they were in arms of each other. Dante immortalized this love tale in his Divine Comedy. The Gradara Castle was constructed sometime in the eleventh and fifteenth centuries. Its past is deeply entwined with the notorious conflicts between the Montefeltro and Malatesta dynasties. Only after the Sforza family took ownership of the castle did this protracted dispute come to an end. But Dante stepped in with his Divine Comedy, using the castle as the setting for the story of Paolo and Francesca and turning it into a symbol of love forever [Information and Image Credit : Gradara_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gradara_Castle ] [Image : Gradara Castle ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Enrico90p] [The copyright holder of the work (Image), release the work into the public domain. This applies worldwide; In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: the copyright holder grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law. ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gradara.jpg ] #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
07-Jan-2024 02 am
 

Perched on the highest of seven hills of Bamberg in southern Germany, the Altenburg castle commands a commanding view of the town below. It was established as early as 1109 and is situated in the Bavarian area of Upper Franconia. Although it is most likely that the Altenburg was constructed on the site of an earlier palisade castle, it was first mentioned in 1109. The castle was purchased by the Bamberg Fürstbischöfe, sovereign bishops of the city, in 1251. It served as the bishop-home from 1305 to 1553. The fortress was destroyed by fire in 1553 as part of the Second Margrave War, which was led by Albert Alcibiades, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. Following then, the castle was utilized as a jail for a while. Adalbert Friedrich Marcus, a physician from Bamberg, purchased the dilapidated castle in 1801, rebuilding it from the ground up. During the years 1808 to 1813, the writer E. T. A. Hoffmann, who was acquainted with Marcus, often spent extended periods of time in one of the wall towers due to his strong attraction to the castle. Public tours of the castle are available nowadays. The Restaurant Altenburg is another eatery within the castle. In addition, the restaurant oversees the operation of the so-called Knights Hall, which is primarily utilized for celebrations and weddings [Information and Image Credit : Altenburg_(Bamberg), Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altenburg_(Bamberg) ] [Image : Altenburg Castle, seen from the South] [This work (Image) has been released into the public domain by its author, Johannes Otto Först. This applies worldwide; In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: Johannes Otto Först grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law. ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Altenburg_von_S%C3%BCden_14-09-2003_(3).JPG ]  #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
05-Jan-2024 07 pm
 

In Lower Engadin, Graubünden, next to erstwhile municipality of  Tarasp, sits the castle known as Tarasp Castle. It is a nationally significant Swiss heritage site. Most likely constructed in the eleventh century, Tarasp Castle may have been constructed as early as the tenth. The term Wild Earth, Terra Aspera, may allude to the recently discovered areas in the Inn River Valley. By 1089, when Ulrich von Tarasp was named in a papal mandate addressed to the Bishop of Chur, they had taken on the name of the fortress. As part of their plan to establish a barony in the hitherto deserted high alpine valley, the family established Scuol Monastery at the same time as Marienberg Abbey. At this point, the castle was made up of a chapel with a bell tower that doubled as a guard tower, and a ring wall. A ring wall, a portion of the chapel, and its bell tower served as the initial defenses of the site. West of the chapel, a massive palas with walls two meters thick was constructed in the thirteenth century, and it eventually became the heart of castle. It is likely that the residential wings date back to the 13th century as well. The castle was attacked multiple times and burnt twice throughout the 16th and 17th century. Throughout those years, numerous reconstructions and renovations were made to the dwelling wings in particular. The lower floors received wood decorations, new windows pierced through the rock walls, and vaulted ceilings. The chapel has been incorporated within the castle-ring-wall. Only remnants of the 12th-century paintings that adorned the apse still survive. In the seventeenth century, the interior was refurbished. The freestanding bell tower was most likely constructed as a watchtower and church tower combined. It has a five-story height with an ornate Baroque onion dome on top. To defend the castle from attacks, the two half towers and the zwinger, or outer courtyard, were most likely constructed in the sixteenth century. The castle underwent renovations in 1714–1715 and Iin1732. The outer walls are coated with white plaster and adorned with late fifteenth-century coats of arms. Although they have since faded, these paintings were still visible in 1900. A handful, though, have recently undergone restoration efforts [Information and Image Credit : Tarasp_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarasp_Castle ] [Image : Tarasp village and castle; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Roland Zumbühl] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tarasp-03.jpg ] #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
01-Jan-2024 03 am
 

The largest fortified building in Trentino-Alto Adige is Castel Beseno. Situated inside the borders of the municipality of Besenello of Trento province Italy, it serves as one of the locations for the museum complex of Provincial Museum of the Castello del Buonconsiglio. Large rooms, strong doors, bastions, courtyards, imposing walls, dungeons and cisterns, and a plethora of frescoes may all be found within. Views of the entire Vallagarina and the Rio Cavallo below are available. The castle hosts cultural and tourism events during the summer. From the center of Besenello, it is accessible. From the summit of the hill, one has always had access to the valley that leads to Folgaria and control over the entire Vallagarina below. The first known details about this fortification date back to the 12th century, when the Da Besenos, a family of their vassals, lived there as a fief of the counts of Appiano. After a fire in the 1500s, it was reconstructed and refurbished, transforming its appearance from a medieval castle to a home while keeping its status as a well-armed defensive stronghold. The turbulence did not end so soon: in fact, at the end of the eighteenth century, it was once again the target of a bloody siege by troops of Napoleon, who were ultimately defeated after days of siege by a column of Austrian troops arriving in defense of Castel Beseno. Despite the massive deployment, they were unable to prevail. Subsequently, the castle experienced a lengthy period of decline due to the more tranquil political environment, which diminished the necessity of this defensive edifice. Eventually, the castle was abandoned during the nineteenth century. The elliptical construction, which was reconstructed in the latter half of the 20th century, spans the full summit of the limestone hill and is 250 meters long and roughly 50 meters wide [Information and Image Credit : Castel_Beseno, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castel_Beseno ] [Image : The south-eastern side of Castel Beseno seen from the panoramic point near the hamlet of Serrada in the municipality of Folgaria; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Matteo Ianeselli ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.it ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link: https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Calliano-Castel_Beseno_from_Folgaria-southeast.jpg ] #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
29-Dec-2023 11 pm
 

Architecturally similar to the Scottish tower house, Doe Castle, also known as Caisleán na dTuath, was the ancient stronghold of Clan tSuibhne and was located close to Creeslough in County Donegal of Ireland. One of the better fortalices in the northwest of Ireland, it was constructed in the early 15th century. With a moat carved out of the rock on the landward side, the castle is situated on a small peninsula that is encircled by water on three sides. The building is mostly made up of tall exterior walls encircling a four-story tower-house, or keep, inside a bawn. The Quinn family most likely constructed Doe Castle around 1420, although the gallowglass MacSweeney family had acquired ownership of it by the 1440s. For nearly 200 years, the castle was held by a Clan Sweeney branch, but King James VI and I took control of it when the MacSweeneys rebelled against him. During the Plantation of Ulster on March 7, 1613, the king gave Sir John Davies, the Attorney-General for Ireland, the castle and other estates. Sir John sold the castle to Captain John Sandford, an English settler from Shropshire, on December 31, 1614. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Owen Roe ONeill led the Ulster Army of the Irish Confederate armies, returning there in 1642. Throughout the English and Irish struggle for dominance of Ireland in the 17th century, the castle was owned by different people on multiple occasions. It is known that the castle was occupied by Sir Charles Coote, the Governor of Londonderry, in 1650. In the end, Sir George Vaughan Hart purchased the castle, and his family lived there until 1843. After being taken over by the Land Commission in 1932, the castle was designated a national monument in 1934 and purchased by the Office of Public Works. In the 1990s, the tower house of the castle received extensive repair [Information and Image Credit : Doe_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doe_Castle ] [Image : Doe Castle from the front, featuring Towerhouse and Bawn Walls; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Seamus mcmonagle] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Doe_Castle,_Donegal.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
29-Dec-2023 03 am
 

Located in Alcántara, Extremadura, Spain, the Alcántara Bridge is a Roman bridge. The Roman emperor Trajan issued an order in 98 AD to construct the stone arch bridge across the Tagus River between 104 and 106 AD. Over the years, fighting has caused more damage to the Alcántara Bridge than environmental factors. One of the tiniest arches was demolished in 1214, but it was reconstructed using stone from the original quarries centuries later, in 1543. Charles III rebuilt the second arch on the northwest side in 1762 after it had been destroyed in 1760, but it was demolished once more in 1809. Although some bridge repairs were performed temporarily in 1819, the bridge was severely damaged once more in 1836. 1860 saw the reconstruction of the bridge using mortared brickwork. And in 1969, the main pillars were fully restored after the José María de Oriol Dam was finished, allowing the Tagus riverbed to be drained. The province of Lusitania was an old Roman province where the bridge was built. Known as opus pontis, or bridge labor, the expenses of constructing and maintaining bridges fell under the purview of several local towns in ancient Rome. Their shared expenses demonstrate that Roman bridges belonged to the area as a whole, not just to a particular town. The cost of constructing the Alcántara Bridge in Portugal was borne by twelve local communities. The inscription on the arches over the center pier was updated with their names [Information and Image Credit : Alcántara_Bridge, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alc%C3%A1ntara_Bridge ] [Image : Alcántara_Bridge; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Alonso de Mendoza] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:El_puente_de_Alc%C3%A1ntara,_C%C3%A1ceres.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
25-Dec-2023 01 am
 

The Niedzica Castle, also called Dunajec Castle, is situated near Niedzica, in the southernmost region of Poland. It was built by Kokos of Brezovica between 1320 and 1326 on the site of an old stronghold encircled by clay walls in the Pieniny highlands. Measuring from the center of the dam on Lake Czorsztyn, the Niedzica Castle is located 300 meters upstream from the mouth of the Dunajec River, at an elevation of 566 meters. The best place to see the silhouette of Niedzica Castle is from the Czorsztyn Castle ruins across the lake. Numerous books have this castle on their covers because it is regarded as one of the most gorgeous in the nation. Since the fourteenth century, the castle has played a significant role in Polish-Hungarian ties. It was the location of a 1412 agreement requiring the return of funds granted to Sigismund, the king of Hungary, by the Polish monarch. The 16 Spiš towns that Sigismund had handed the Polish monarch as collateral were returned once the loan was repaid. The castle served as a border station with Hungary for many years. At Niedzica an agreement was made to turn the area into a protectorate of Poland during the Turkish invasion five centuries prior. With family rights dating back to 1325, Kokos, a Hungarian from Brezovica, built the castle. It was acquired by the noble Zápolya family in 1470. But in 1528, John Zápolya, who was vying for the Hungarian throne, gave up the entire county, including the castle, and William Drugeth acquired it in exchange for his backing. It was acquired by Hieronim Łaski and his son Olbracht sixty years later. Ján Horváth purchased the castle from Plaveč around the end of the 16th century. The castle had numerous renovations from its succeeding owners in the fifteenth, sixteenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth centuries. The last Hungarian occupants left in 1943, when the Salamon family decided to leave because to the approaching German front in World War II. Two years before the Red Army marched in, the last countess departed with her kids. Under the direction of the Polish Ministry of Culture, the final reconstruction of the castle was finished in 1963. Since then, it has operated as a history museum [Information and Image Credit : Niedzica_Castle, Wikipedia]  [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niedzica_Castle ] [Image : Niedzica Castle at Lake Czorsztyn ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Zygmunt Put Zetpe0202] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Niedzica_Castle,_Niedzica-Zamek_village,_Nowy_Targ_County,_Lesser_Poland_Voivodeship,_Poland.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
24-Dec-2023 02 am
 

In the Canton of Aargau, Switzerland, there is a castle called Lenzburg Castle that is situated above the historic town of Lenzburg. It is amongst the most significant and ancient of the castles of Switzerland. Slightly more than 250 meters in circumference, the nearly round castle hill rises roughly 100 meters above the surrounding plain. The Lenzburg Counts constructed the castle in the eleventh century as their seat, and those are the oldest portions of the structure. The castle, along with its historical museum and the castle hill containing Neolithic burial mounds, are recognized as nationally significant heritage monuments. Prehistoric people had already settled on the noticeable hill. For instance, in the parking lot in 1959, a Neolithic cemetery was discovered. Small finds from the Roman and Alemannic periods have also been made. A tale claims that two knights, Wolfram and Guntram, vanquished a dragon that was formerly housed in a cave on a mountainside. The two Counts of Lenzburg were made grateful by the people, who also granted them permission to erect a castle atop the hill. A document from 1036 mentions an Ulrich, Count of Aargau. He oversaw the abbeys of Schänis and Beromünster and served as the Vogt of the Emperor in Zürich. In 1077, grandson of Ulrich, also Ulrich, assumed the role of emperor in the Investiture Controversy and imprisoned two Papal legates for half a year, marking the first official mention of the castle-existence. With strong ties to the emperor, the Counts of Lenzburg were at that time some of the most significant feudal lords on the Swiss Plateau. But in 1173, the line ended. Ulrich IV, the last Count of Lenzburg, bequeathed his personal heir, Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa, because the two had served together on the Second Crusade. The emperor visited Lenzburg Castle and oversaw the distribution of the estate personally, granting the Count Palatine Otto of Burgundy, his son, the majority of the territory. But death of Otto in 1200 meant that the Hohenstaufen family had to leave the Aargau. By marriage, the Counts of Kyburg acquired Lenzburg Castle in approximately 1230 through two nearby noble houses, Andechs-Merania and Châlon. The town of Lenzburg was thereafter established as a fortified market settlement at the western foot of the castle hill [Information Credit : Lenzburg_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenzburg_Castle ] [Image : The Lenzburg Castle on Top of a Hill ; Image-Credit : Lukas Feldmann, Pexels; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [Image Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/the-lenzburg-castle-on-top-of-a-hill-5653452/ ] #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
23-Dec-2023 01 am
 

The High Middle Ages saw the construction of Bürresheim Castle in the Eifel, which was later transformed into a notable residential complex during the Baroque era. Because of its current level of preservation, it is regarded as a remarkable testament to Rhenish aristocracy and residential life. It was once the capital of a tiny imperial lordship. Constructed as a fortress in the twelfth century, Bürresheim Castle was initially recorded in 1157 alongside its proprietors. The complex took on its current form only in the fifteenth century, however it still seems like a closed whole. There used to be two totally separate, unconnected, and differing sized complexes with only the 12th-century Romanesque keep in common. Two neck ditches and curtain walls previously protected Bürresheim Castle. Only a small portion of the curtain walls are still visible because the latter have already filled in. The oldest structure in the palace complex is the nearly square keep. It is now reachable via a 17th-century baroque staircase that was formerly only accessible through a lofty entryway. The apartment of gatekeeper was located on the fifth story and was most likely added upon in the fifteenth century. From the complex building, there is an ideal view of the transition from the castle to the palace. Situated on a rocky spur near the mouth of the Nitzbach and Nette, northwest of Mayen, the castle is owned by the local community of Sankt Johann in Rhineland-Palatinate. Bürresheim Castle, together with Eltz Castle and Lissingen Castle, is one of the few aristocratic homes in the Eifel that has escaped destruction and conquest. It has withstood the conflicts of the 17th and 18th centuries as well as the social unrest brought on by the French Revolution. Being situated on the boundary between the two ecclesiastical electorates of Cologne and Trier had a significant influence on its history [Information and Image Credit : Schloss_Bürresheim, Wikipedia]  [Wikipedia-Link :   https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schloss_B%C3%BCrresheim ] [Image : Bürresheim Castle, Aerial view (2014); Wikipedia-Image-Author : skyscraper] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.de ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Schloss_B%C3%BCrresheim_047x.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
20-Dec-2023 01 am
 

In the Spanish province of Jaén, the town of Baños de la Encina is home to the old Burgalimar Castle. The castle was built around 967 AD, according to a marble inscription plaque near the entrance. Currently on display at National Archaeological Museum of Madrid is the marble plaque. To protect the Guadalquivir River valley and the routes leading to and from Córdoba, the capital of the country, the castle was constructed as a military outpost and garrison. The castle is made out of a sizable walled enclosure that is roughly 50 meters wide and 100 meters long, with an uneven shape. One entrance gate is located in the north, and the other is located in the south or southeast. The southern entrance, which holds greater significance, is a straight passageway with horseshoe-shaped arches situated between two towers. Above the walkway were chambers with floor openings through which missiles could be launched at would-be assailants. Today, the foundations of additional buildings and the remnants of a cistern are located inside the castle. It was constructed in the tenth century while Córdoba was ruled by the Umayyad Caliphate. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the castle was controlled by different groups over various periods. Castile finally took control of the fortress in 1225 when it annexed the surrounding area. Subsequently, in 1466, the Castilians erected a keep tower known as the Torre del Homenaje, or Tower of Homage. In 1931, it received the designation of National Monument of Spain [Information and Image Credit : Burgalimar_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgalimar_Castle ] [Image : From a distance, Burgalimar Castle;] Wikipedia-Image-Author : Castillo_de_Burgalimar_K34.jpg: Kordas ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Castillo_de_Burgalimar_K34b.jpg ]   #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
17-Dec-2023 05 pm
 

The Valère Basilica, commonly known as Valère castle, is a fortified religious structure in the Swiss canton of Valais that is located in Sion. Perched atop a hill, it looks out toward the Château de Tourbillon, which sits atop the other hill. It is a nationally significant Swiss heritage site. Perched 615 meters above sea level on the Valère hill, the castle of Valère commands a commanding presence over the Swiss canton of Sion town of Valais. Because Valère Hill is home to numerous protected species, the site has been listed in the Federal Inventory of Sites and Monuments of National Importance since 1977. The fortified settlement and its walls surround the castle, with the church situated at the summit of the hill. The castle can only be accessed from the northeast due to the highly irregular relief of the Valère hill. Early in the fourth century, the Diocese was established in Octodurum, which is now known as Martigny. One of the oldest still in use in the world is the pipe organ on the west side of the Valère Basilica, which is thought to have been constructed in 1435. The likelihood is that Guillaume de Rarogne, who became the bishop of Sion, brought it to the church. Its pipes are set up in a way that somewhat resembles a church : the smaller pipes form a triangle, while the larger pipes form two towers. The organ has not evolved much since it was altered to play Baroque music in the 1700s. It was refurbished in 1954, concurrently with the restoration of the Rysum organ, another well-known early model [Information and Image Credit : Valère_Basilica, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Val%C3%A8re_Basilica ] [Image : The Valère and Tourbillon castles as seen from Sion; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Christian David] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Val%C3%A8re_et_Tourbillon_depuis_l%27ouest.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
16-Dec-2023 02 am
 

In Markt Falkenberg of Bavaria is where one can find the Falkenberg Castle. The tiny passageways where Waldnaab towers rises above and the earliest remnants of the walls of the Höhenburg exists, which was populated until 2009, are thought to have been built in the eleventh century. In 1154, the castle was first mentioned in passing under the name Pilegrin de Valkenberch. This defensive structure has had numerous owners since it was built. The Falkenbergs were there at first, followed by the Leuchtenbergers in 1280. The Waldsassen Monastery acquired ownership of the fortress in 1300. After 1486, the abbot Udalrich II Birker decided to retire there. It belonged to the Electoral Palatinate circa 1571. Königsmarck, a Swedish general, shelled and conquered the fortress shortly before the Thirty Years War came to a close. In 1803, the castle was secularized and became the property of the Bavarian Kingdom. Three-quarters of the keep were destroyed in 1809, and the stones were used to construct the vicarage. The castle was designated as a monument decades later. The castle complex was purchased by the Falkenberg market in December 2008. Eight separate hotel rooms with views over Falkenberg have been established on the upper floor following extensive renovation. The castle opened for public visitation and events in early 2016 following formal inauguration in November of 2015 by Prime Minister Seehofer. The Falkenberg granite is the type of granite on which the rock of the castle is built upon. It was there that woolsack weathering, a geological term, was first used. The castle hosts lectures, musical performances, and festivals for the Forum Falkenberg, the cultural hub of the market town of Falkenberg. The castle has eight double rooms and is also utilized as a hotel. The Burg Event and Conference Center, which is mostly utilized for conferences and events, was constructed adjacent to the castle [Information and Image Credit : Burg_Falkenberg, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burg_Falkenberg ] [Image : Falkenberg Castle ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Walter J. Pilsak, Waldsassen] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons License Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 not ported; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.de ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Falkenberg-Burg-2.jpg ] #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
15-Dec-2023 02 am
 

At the entrance to the South Campus of Maynooth University, there is a destroyed castle known as Maynooth Castle, located in Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland. Built in the early 13th century, it served as the principal abode of the Kildare Fitzmaurice and Fitzgerald. In 1176, Strongbow gave Maurice Fitzgerald, Lord of Llanstephan, the land that is now Kildare. Around 1203, the original keep was built. Gerald Fitzmaurice, 1st Lord of Offaly, constructed the castle at the confluence of two streams, which became the residence of the Fitzmaurice and Fitzgerald families. Sir John Fitzgerald extended it in the fifteenth century after that. The ancestors of Gerald Fitzmaurice went on to become the Earls of Leinster and Kildare. Lords Deputy of Ireland. In March 1535, an English force under the command of William Skeffington assaulted the enormous castle, destroying most of the medieval construction with their powerful, contemporary siege guns. Following a ten-day siege, the castle collapsed, and the garrison was ruthlessly executed in front of the castle gate. Shortly after, Silken Thomas was taken prisoner and sent, together with his five uncles, to the Tower of London. On February 3, 1537, they were put to death at Tyburn for treason. Following the marriage of his daughter to George FitzGerald, 16th Earl of Kildare, Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, renovated the Castle between 1630 and 1635. However, a large portion of this structure was destroyed in the 1640s during the Eleven Years War. Only the Solar Tower and the gatehouse are still standing. The Fitzgeralds permanently departed Maynooth Castle and established their family seat first at Kilkea Castle and then at Carton House. In order to turn the castle into a Heritage Site, the Office of Public Works recommenced restoration work on it in February 2000. The partially collapsed structure is still open to visitors today, albeit entry is restricted [Information and Image Credit : Maynooth_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maynooth_Castlen ] [Image : Maynooth Castle in 2016; Wikipedia-Image-Author : William Murphy] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maynooth_castle.jpg ] #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
13-Dec-2023 11 pm
 

The Reifenstein Castle is located in the northern Italian region of South Tyrol in Freienfeld, close to Sterzing. It is situated in the Eisack Valley next to a dried-up marsh. The 12th century is when the castle is first mentioned, and the 14th century saw modifications. It belongs to the counts of Thurn und Taxis. It is well-known for its ornate Green Hall, which features wood-carved chapel doors and Gothic paintings, as well as its collection of armor and stubes. A medieval sleeping bunk and an actual kitchen and bathroom may also be found in the castle. William P. Carr, who purchased the castle just before World War II, was one of its owners. His surname was Reifenstein at the time, but he had changed it to Carr before the war [Information and Image Credit : Reifenstein_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reifenstein_Castle ] [Image : Reifenstein Castle, Wikipedia-Image-Author ::- User:Matthias Süßen ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link:  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Matthias_Suessen_Sommer2017-7801.jpg#Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
12-Dec-2023 03 am
 

Located in city of Segovia, Castile and León, Spain, the Alcazar of Segovia is a medieval castle. It is one of the most well-known medieval castles in the world and one of the most popular tourist destinations in Spain. It has been there since at least the 12th century. In addition to housing twenty-two monarchs and other prominent historical figures, it has served as the backdrop for important historical events. Above the meeting point of the rivers Eresma and Clamores, the fortress is perched atop a rocky crag at the western extremity of Old City of Segovia, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985. Since being designated as a National Archive by a Royal Decree in 1998, it is currently in use as a museum and a military archives building. It has also served as a military academy, a state jail, and a Royal Artillery College on occasion. The Alcazar was a royal residence and a stronghold for the Castilian kings. Its architecture is a remarkable example of Power Architecture and reflects the majesty of the building; its formidable walls, its deep moat, its towers, which include the Homage and Juan IIs, and its advantageous location all denote strength and authority. In addition, the extravagance and elegance of the interior, featuring elaborately furnished chambers and coffered ceilings, were intended to surprise and overwhelm guests, so enhancing the power of the Kings of Castile. In a similar vein, the history of Alcazar has been greatly influenced by the stories and traditions surrounding it. Even though it has a harsh, defensive look, Alcazar of Segovia has also been a center of everyday living. Its halls have seen the upbringing of numerous princes, nobility, and infants, whose presence has softened the exterior of the palace and made it feel like home to many. Its history started in the 12th or early 13th century, when the Alcazar, or Major Palace, served as the residence for the Castile royal family. The treasure of the Crown of Castile, which provided the money for the first expedition of Christopher Columbus, was kept in the Homage tower. Apart from that, the royal armory kept in the Alcazar was the model for the one currently on display in the Royal Armory of Madrid. Important occasions in Spanish history have taken place at the Alcazar, including the numerous Cortes of Castile and the signing of the Concord of Segovia, which established the foundation for the creation of the Spanish nation. Additionally, before the demise of the explorer, King Ferdinand the Catholic and Christopher Columbus had their final meeting there. The first military flight for military purposes took place in the 18th century, as the headquarters of the Royal College of Artillery, thus initiating military aviation [Information and Image Credit : Alcázar_of_Segovia, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alc%C3%A1zar_of_Segovia ] [Image : Alcazar of Segovia; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Ángel Sanz de Andrés] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Panor%C3%A1mica_Oto%C3%B1o_Alc%C3%A1zar_de_Segovia.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
11-Dec-2023 12 am
 

Situated in the French département of Dordogne, the commune of Beynac-et-Cazenac is home to the castle known as Château de Beynac. Among the most well-known and well-preserved in the area is the castle. Perched on a limestone cliff, this austere edifice from the Middle Ages dominates both the village and the north bank of the Dordogne. To seal off the valley, the lords of Beynac, one of the four baronies of Périgord, erected the fortress in the twelfth century. Since the sheer rock face would deter any attack from that direction, the defenses were erected on the plateau and included twin barbicans, double crenellated walls, and double moats, one of which was a naturally occurring ravine that had been widened. The largest and oldest portion of the castle is a massive square-shaped Romanesque keep with few windows and vertical walls that is kept together by watch towers attached to it. It also has a narrow spiral stairway that ends on a terrace with crenellations. A similar-era home that was expanded and remodeled in the 16th and 17th centuries is linked to one side. A partially 14th-century home with a courtyard and a square-plan stairway leading to the 17th-century apartments is located on the other side. The 17th-century painted ceiling and woodwork are still intact in the flats. The Salle des État features a modest oratory completely painted in murals from the fifteenth century, as well as a Renaissance-style fireplace. French forces occupied the Beynac citadel during the Hundred Years War. The border separating France and England was the Dordogne. The English controlled the Château de Castelnaud, which was located nearby on the other side of the river. The Dordogne area saw several power struggles, conflicts, and even skirmishes between the supporters of the English and French forces. But since the forces required to capture these castles were so expensive—only the wealthiest nobles and kings could afford to build and maintain them—the castles fell more frequently via deceit and intrigue than through open attack. Lucien Grosso purchased the castle in 1962 and has since repaired it. Sumptuous tapestries depicting hunting and other scenes from the lives of the lords of the era are on display for visitors to the castle. The French Ministry of Culture has designated the Château de Beynac as a monument historique since 1944 [Information and Image Credit : Château_de_Beynac, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Beynac ] [Image : Beynac-et-Cazenac view from Jardins de Marqueyssac ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Ladislaus Hoffner] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2015_Beynac-et-Cazenac.jpg ] #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
09-Dec-2023 11 pm
 

Situated in the north of the historical province of Beaujolais, in southwest Burgundy, is the French town of La Clayette, home to the Château de La Clayette, a castle dating back to the 14th and 19th centuries. It is a historical monument that is listed. The castle was first constructed as a fortress due to its advantageous defensive position, which was encircled by a moat full of water. It is not accessible to the public at this time and is private property. The castle was first mentioned in 1307 as a fortified home. The fortified home was transformed into a castle by Philibert de Lespinasse in 1380, amid the Hundred Years War. Louis de Chantemerle owned the castle by 1420. While traveling to Lyon in 1524, Francis I of France stopped over at the castle for one night. Paul of the House of Damas, one of the oldest aristocratic families in France, owned the castle by 1632. The castle was inherited by the Dyo family in 1703 following the passing of Jean-Léonard de Damas. The castle was purchased by Bernard de Noblet in 1722, and his descendants are the current owners. It was enlarged in the 19th century to its present dimensions [Information and Image Credit : Château_de_La_Clayette, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A2teau_de_La_Clayette ] [Image : The Château as seen from the lake ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Jackydarne] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ch%C3%A2teau_de_la_Clayette_vu_de_la_rive_du_lac.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
09-Dec-2023 03 am
 

The vast Taufers Castle complex is located in the Italian municipality of Sand in Taufers in South Tyrol. Situated around 957 meters above sea level on a naturally occurring mountain peak, the castle commands a commanding view over the Ahrntal entry and the Tauferer Valley to the south. It is situated above Sand in Taufers. The Ahr crosses the small area that designates the boundary between the two valleys below the castle rock, or Klapf. Shortly after 1091, the Taufers were established as a ruling family; Hugo von Taufers and Taufers Castle were first referenced in 1136, along with the Noble Freemen of Taufers in 1224. The Romanesque phase, carried out by the Lords of Taufers, and the Gothic phase, carried out by the Lords of Fieger and the bishops of Brixen, are the two construction stages that define the history of the castle. In 1456, the latter bought the Taufers castle, court, and office from Duke Sigmund of Austria-Tyrol. The keep, a residential tower, the palace, another structure perched on the edge of a cliff above the Ahr, and the surrounding wall made up the original castle. Only during the 15th century, and up until about 1621, did the Dukes of Austria, the Lords of Fieger and the Barons of Wolkenstein-Rodenegg, expand the buildings along the surrounding wall. They constructed an extensive gate complex with defensive towers and intricate drawbridge structures, which is only visible in detail today, along with offices and living quarters for judges and nurses. An improved view of the previous circumstances can be obtained from the 2012 renovation of the outer access bridge over a recently excavated ditch. Significant restorations, including the rebuilding of collapsed walls and the rehabilitation of many rooms, were carried out under Ludwig Lobmeyr in the first ten years of the 1900s following decades of deterioration. The final decade of the 20th century saw the South Tyrolean Castle Institute, who have owned Taufers Castle since 1977, carry out the essential building work, including major facade conservation and interior repair. The castle appeared closed as a result. The inner courtyard, keep, ice cellar, castle garden, and other areas of the castle are open for visitors to explore without a guide, whereas the showrooms that are worth viewing require a guide [Information and Image Credit : Burg_Taufers, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burg_Taufers ] [Image : View of Taufers Castle from the east, showing the once-collapsed keep; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Klaus Foehl] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.de ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Burg_Taufers01arch_2011-01-03.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
08-Dec-2023 03 am
 

Located in the Aude department in the Occitania region, the French city of Carcassonne is home to the ancient citadel known as the Cité de Carcassonne. It is located in the southeast of the city core, atop a hill on the right bank of Aude River. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, an architect and thinker, renovated the citadel towards the end of the 19th century. Because of its remarkable witness to the design and layout of a medieval fortress town, it was inscribed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1997. Founded in the Gallo-Roman era, the fame of the citadel comes from its double enclosing walls, spanning three kilometers, punctuated by fifty-two turrets. With a roughly 2,500-year history, the town has had periods of Roman, Visigothic, and Crusader occupation. It was a Gaulish village in the beginning, and the Romans opted to fortify it as a town in the third century CE. The settlement is referred to as a castellum in 333 CE, when the Roman defenses were in place. Between 34 and 40 towers, placed 18 to 30 meters apart along the curtain wall, supported the ancient walls. Each tower was roughly 14 meters tall and had a semicircular floor plan. The village had around forty primary entrances. The basic structure of the Gallo-Roman walls was preserved even after they were renovated in the fifth and sixth centuries when the Visigoths occupied the town. With his many building projects, Bernard Aton IV Trencavel, vicomte of Albi, Nîmes, and Béziers, ushered in a prosperous era for the city. In Languedoc, a new sect known as Catharism emerged during this time. Bernard Aton V began rebuilding the Gallo-Roman defenses and building a mansion for himself in 1130. For the first time, a whole fortification encircled the Cité of Carcassonne. Three or four thousand people lived in the city at this period, including those who lived in the two communities located beneath the walls of the Cité, the bourg Saint-Vincent to the north and the bourg Saint-Michel to the south of the Narbon gate. Outside the Roman walls, a second line of defenses was erected after 1226. In 1247, the town was at last annexed by the French Crown. It offered the Crown of Aragon and France a solid French frontier. The new outer walls were strengthened and extended to the south during this time, while the inner Roman walls were mostly destroyed and rebuilt. Following the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the region of Roussillon was incorporated into France, and the military importance of the town diminished. After the fortifications were abandoned, the town developed into one of major economic hubs of France, specializing in the production of woolen textiles. The French government determined in 1849 that the defenses of the city ought to be destroyed. The locals were vehemently against this choice. Later, the government changed its mind, and restoration efforts got underway in 1853. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, an architect, was tasked with restoring the castle. Following his passing in 1879, his student Paul Boeswillwald carried on with the restoration work, which was eventually taken over by architect Nodet [Information and Image Credit : Cité_de_Carcassonne, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cit%C3%A9_de_Carcassonne ] [Image : Constructed in the fourteenth century, the Pont-Vieux overlooks the Cité and has been recognized as a historical monument since 1926; Wikipedia-Image Author : Txllxt TxllxT] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carcassonne_-_Pont_Neuf_-_View_SSE_on_Old_Bridge_%26_Citadel_-_Porte_d%27Aude.jpg ] #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
07-Dec-2023 12 am
 

The Rocca Castle Calascio is a rocca, or mountaintop stronghold, located in the Italian province of Abruzzo. Situated approximately 1,460 meters above sea level, the castle is the tallest fortification in the Apennines. Constructed using stone and masonry solely for military objectives, the stronghold overlooks the Plain of Navelli from one of the highest locations in the historic Barony of Carapelle. It was never meant to serve as a house for nobility. With just one watchtower, the construction of the fortress got underway in the tenth century. The thirteenth century saw the addition of a walled courtyard surrounded by a higher inner tower and four cylindrical towers at each corner. The lower half of the fortress was constructed using notably larger stones than its upper half. This feature is thought to have been designed to prevent invaders from accessing the base. There was never a combat test for the fortification. However, an earthquake estimated to have been between a 7 and an 8 on the Richter Scale severely devastated it in November of 1461. The fortress was not rebuilt, although the village below it, called Calascio, did. Beside the elevated plain of Campo Imperatore, in the Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park, is the Castle of Rocca Calascio. The seventeenth-century, octagonal Santa Maria della Pietà church is located next to the fortification at a little lower elevation [Information and Image Credit : Castle_of_Rocca_Calascio ; Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle_of_Rocca_Calascio ] [Image : The difference between the larger stones of the lower part of the Castle of Rocca Calascio and the smaller stones of upper structure is clearly visible;  ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Renano] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rocca_Calascio_3.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
06-Dec-2023 03 am
 

In Ghent, in the Belgian province of East Flanders, there is a medieval fortress called the Gravensteen. The present castle was built in 1180 and served as the home of Counts of Flanders until 1353. After that, it served as a court, a jail, a mint, and even a cotton factory. After being renovated between 1893 and 1903, it is currently a museum and a significant city monument. The Gravensteen has its roots in the reign of Arnulf I i.e. between 890–965. Approximately 1000 AD, the location, which was sandwiched between two branches of the Lys River, was originally defended, first with wood and then with stone. This was quickly rebuilt as a motte-and-bailey fortress, which burned down in 1176 or later. On the location of the previous fortification, Philip of Alsace ,1143–1191, erected the present castle in 1180. Perhaps it was influenced by the crusader strongholds Philip saw during the Second Crusade. In addition to serving as a fortification, the Gravensteen was designed to terrify the Ghent burghers who frequently questioned the authority of the count. It consists of several smaller buildings, a home, and a big central donjon. A 24 little échauguette-lined, oval-shaped, reinforced enceinte encircles these. Its sizable moat is likewise supplied with water from the Lys. The Counts of Flanders lived in the Gravensteen from 1180 until 1353. The castle fell into disrepair once the counts of Flanders stopped calling it home. Up to the eighteenth century, it served as a courtroom and a prison. It served as the location of mint of Ghent from 1353 until 1491. Later, private structures were built on top of or near the medieval ruins. An industrialist who bought the Gravensteen during the Industrial Revolution turned it into a cotton mill. It was even supposed to be demolished. Over time, the City of Ghent acquired portions of the castle and, under the direction of architect Joseph de Waele, undertook a significant renovation in a romanticizing Gothic style between 1893 and 1907. De Waele intended to restore the castle to its projected 12th-century appearance, using inspiration from the methods used by French architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. Up to the eighteenth century, it served as a courtroom and a prison. It served as the location of mint of Ghent from 1353 until 1491. Later, private structures were built on top of or near the medieval ruins. An industrialist who bought the Gravensteen during the Industrial Revolution turned it into a cotton mill. It was even supposed to be demolished. Over time, the City of Ghent acquired portions of the castle and, under the direction of architect Joseph de Waele, undertook a significant renovation in a romanticizing Gothic style between 1893 and 1907. De Waele intended to restore the castle to its projected 12th-century appearance, using inspiration from the methods used by French architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. It is believed that many of the characteristics added during this time, such the windows and flat roofs of the eastern outbuilding, are not historically correct. The Gravensteen served as the focal point of the 1913 Ghent World Fair, which drastically altered the downtown of the city. It is still accessible to public [Information and Image Credit : Gravensteen, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravensteen ] [Image : The Gravensteen, seen from the south-east; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Marc Ryckaert (MJJR)] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gent_Gravensteen_R01.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
03-Dec-2023 10 pm
 

Lismore Castle is a castle in the County Waterford of Republic of Ireland, situated in the town of Lismore. It was owned by the Desmond Earls until 1753, when it was passed down to the Cavendish family. The Duke of Devonshire now resides there in Ireland. The sixth Duke of Devonshire had it substantially rebuilt in the Gothic style in the middle of the 1800s. The location of the castle was originally occupied by Lismore Abbey, an important monastery and place of learning founded in the early 7th century. The castle was built in 1185 by Prince John of England, the Lord of Ireland, to secure the river crossing. When King Henry II of England came here in 1171, it was still an episcopal center. It was also the episcopal seat of the local bishop for a short while after 1185, when King John of England, his son, was tasked with erecting a castellum. It belonged to the Desmond earls, whose estates were divided up during the plantations when Gerald FitzGerald, the 14th earl of Desmond, was killed in 1583. Sir Walter Raleigh leased Lismore in 1589 and later bought it. Raleigh sold the land to Richard Boyle, another infamous colonial explorer who would go on to become the 1st Earl of Cork in 1620, while he was imprisoned for high treason in 1602. With just twenty-seven pounds when he arrived in the Kingdom of Ireland from the Kingdom of England in 1588, Boyle went on to build an incredible wealth. After acquiring Lismore, he turned it into his principal house and built an opulent mansion with striking gabled ranges on either side of the courtyard. In addition, he constructed the Riding Gate, a gatehouse with a castellated exterior wall. The main chambers featured velvet and silk embroidery, tapestry hangings, and plaster ceilings adorned with fretwork. The fourteenth of the fifteen children of the Earl, Robert Boyle, The Father of Modern Chemistry, was born here in 1626. Eventually, The 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork,1694–1753, commonly referred to as the Earl of Burlington in architectural histories, inherited the castle. He was a significant influence on Georgian architecture. After Lady Charlotte Boyle, the heiress and daughter of the 3rd and 4th Earls of Burlington and Cork, married the Marquess of Hartington in 1753, the castle was eventually acquired by the Cavendish family. The 4th Duke of Devonshire, who became the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1755, was born out of this marriage. Improvements at Lismore were carried out by their son, the 5th Duke, who designed the bridge over the River Blackwater in 1775. Thomas Ivory, an architect from Cork, was the architect for the original structure. The current appearance of the castle is a result of the work of the 6th Duke, also referred to as the Bachelor Duke. As soon as he succeeded his father in 1811, he set about converting the castle into a chic quasi-feudal ultra-regal stronghold. From 1812 to 1822, he hired architect William Atkinson to rebuild the castle in the Gothic style using cut stone that was transported from Derbyshire. The favorite home of the Bachelor Duke has always been Lismore, but as he got older, his affection for the area turned into a passion. Public access is available to the gardens situated within the castle. While much of the informal design of the lower garden dates back to the 19th century, the upper garden is a walled garden from the 17th century. The abandoned west range was transformed into Lismore Castle Arts, a modern art gallery, in 2005. The remaining interior space can be rented by parties of up to twenty-three people, but is not accessible to the general public [Information and Image Credit : Lismore_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lismore_Castle ] [Image : Lismore Castle, 2006 ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Raúl Corral] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lismore_Castle_(Lismore,_Co._Waterford).jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
03-Dec-2023 05 pm
 

In Cornwall, England, the UK, Restormel Castle is located close to Lostwithiel on the River Fowey. It is one of four principal Norman castles of Cornwall, along with Launceston, Tintagel, and Trematon. The castle is distinguished by its flawlessly round architecture. Situated in the parish of Bodardle manor of Lanlivery, Restormel was a part of the Norman magnate Robert, fief of Count of Mortain. Baldwin Fitz Turstin, the local sheriff, most likely constructed Restormel fortress as a motte and bailey fortress in 1100 following the Norman conquest of England. For almost two centuries, lineage of Baldwin kept the manor as tenants and vassals of the Earls of Cornwall. Despite being the opulent home of Earl of Cornwall until the 16th century, the castle was all but destroyed. During the English Civil War, it was briefly reoccupied and the site of fighting, but it was later abandoned. Now that English Heritage is in charge of it, it is accessible to everyone. Restormel Castle, which is perched on a high point with a view of the River Fowey, is a remarkably intact example of a circular shell keep, a unique kind of fortification constructed for a brief time in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. There are just 71 instances known to exist in Wales and England, with Restormel Castle being the best preserved. These castles were constructed by transforming a wooden motte-and-bailey fortification, with a stone wall erected in place of the palisade outside and a plethora of domestic stone structures erected inside the bailey. To serve as a defense, these were grouped together inside the wall. In a dramatic example of the 13th-century pattern, the buildings are bent to fit into the shell keep. The wall is up to 2.4 meters thick and has a diameter of 38 meters. With a wall walk 25 feet above the ground, it still stands tall, and the battlemented parapet is largely intact. Slate, which looks to have been quarried from the scarp face northeast of the castle, was used to build both the wall and the interior structures. The solar, guest quarters, kitchen, hall, and ante-chapel were among the household structures housed inside the wall. The castle structures were supplied with pressurized water from a naturally occurring spring. The entrance to the inner castle is guarded by a square gate tower, which is mostly destroyed. It is possible that this was the first portion of the old castle to be built entirely of stone. The chapel is located on the other side; it is believed to have been added in the thirteenth century and is housed inside a square tower that protrudes from the wall. It seems to have been altered during the English Civil War to become a gun emplacement. There was formerly an external bailey wall that was made of wood and had earthwork defenses. It has since been destroyed and is no longer visible. Additionally, there are historical allusions to a dungeon that has since disappeared. The castle gives the impression that it is perched atop a motte; its enormous walls were, remarkably for the time, buried deeply into the original motte. An outside ringwork that is later filled in to give the impression that it is heaped up against the castle wall enhances the effect. This might have happened in a later era of the existence of the castle to create a garden walk surrounding the ruin [Information and Image Credit : Restormel_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restormel_Castle ] [Image : Restormel Castle, seen from the west ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Zaian at English Wikipedia] [The work (Image) has been released into the public domain by its author, Zaian at English Wikipedia. This applies worldwide; in some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: Zaian have granted anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law. (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)]  [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RestormelCastle.JPG ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
03-Dec-2023 02 am
 

In the northern Italian province of Parma, close to Langhirano, sits the 15th-century Torrechiara Castle. It is strategically located south of the city of Parma, atop a terraced hill with a view of the Parma River and the valley below. Pier Maria II de Rossi, the fourth count of San Secondo, ordered the construction of the fortress, which was completed between 1448 and 1460. The fortification demonstrates the impact of the strongholds of the Sforza family, especially Visconti-Sforza Castle. In addition to serving as an aristocratic home for the mistress of de Rossi, Bianca Pellegrini d Arluno, the castle was constructed as a defensive fortress. Bianca passed away in Torrechiara circa 1480. In 1482, Pier Maria retired to Torrechiara, where he passed away a few months later. Both of them were interred in the northeast tower of the castle, at the Oratory of San Nicomede. Over the ages, the castle saw numerous ownership changes before being designated as a national monument in 1911. The Italian State bought it the next year and let the public use it without any furnishings. The castle was mostly rebuilt between 1448 and 1460, although it dates back to the Middle Ages. It comprises four rectangular towers united by two lines of merloned walls. Many rooms in the interior are furnished with fantastical, grotesque, or realistic characteristics. The paintings in the lunettes depict Bianca Pellegrini running through Rossi and her estates in quest of her beloved; Benedetto Bembo is credited with creating the fresco cycle. The room opens up onto a broad loggiato. On December 23, 2008, a moderate earthquake with a magnitude of roughly 5.2 rocked the area, seriously damaging the castle, especially the battlement and the outside walls of San Nicomede Tower. When structural renovations were finished in 2009, some of the rooms were off-limits to the general public. On the ground floor, where the early 19th-century reconstruction of the collapsing roof slab had occurred, the San Nicomede Oratory was refurbished. The old Sala della Sera was reconstructed and repaired on the main floor of the castle, and it was positioned at the end of the row containing the Aurora, Meriggio, and Vespro chambers. 2014 saw the castle reopen in July [Information and Image Credit : Torrechiara_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torrechiara_Castle ] [Image : Castello di Torrechiara, Wikipedia-Image Author : Mdntb] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Castello_di_Torrechiara_birdsview.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
02-Dec-2023 09 pm
 

The Sarzanello fortress is a military stronghold that overlooks the Val di Magra from above. It is located in the province of La Spezia and is situated on route alla Fortezza on the Sarzanello hill, close to Sarzana. Because to its characteristics and location, it is one of the city symbols of Sarzana. The Regional Museums Directorate took over as the managing body of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities in December 2019 after it was formerly known as the Museum Center of Liguria. The stronghold is made up of two different types of structures. 1. The primary component of the fortification is the first, actual castle, which features a triangle layout with three bastions at the summit. The actual structure of the castle is housed in this manufacturing part. The second is a massive ravelin, nearly the size of the fortress, shaped like a triangle with a defended embankment. Set against the first and joined by a flying bridge to create a rhombus-like structure with the first element consisting of two triangles. The stone bridge that spans the deep and expansive defensive moat provides access to the stronghold. Beginning in the fourth century, gradual and irreversible decline of Luni fforced its citizens to flee to the nearby hills in search of safety. As a result, new villages such as Nicola, Ortonovo, Castelnuovo Magra, and Ameglia grew, if not completely originated, on the surrounding hills, and the Sarzanello hill itself was eventually inhabited by exiles who gathered around the most significant home of the Bishop. The oldest reference to a military system dates back to 963, when the Bishop of Luni was granted ownership of six castras, including Sarzano, in a diploma issued by Emperor Otto I. The castle grew in significance over time as the political and military landscape shifted; by the end of the tenth century, it was home to one of the bishopric houses of the valley. The castrum is frequently cited as the curtis of Emperor Frederick I in the years 1076, 1078, and 1080, as well as the curtis of Henry VI in 1191 [Information and Image Credit : Fortezza_di_Sarzanello, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortezza_di_Sarzanello ] [Image : Sarzanello Fortress Castles of the Val di Magra ; Wikipedia-Image Author : Chabe01] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo 4.0 Internazionale License ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.it ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Forteresse_Castracani_-_Sarzana_(IT42)_-_2022-08-28_-_10.jpg ] #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
29-Nov-2023 10 pm
 

Situated on a hill three kilometers west of center of Palma, on the Spanish island of Majorca, lies Bellver Castle, a Gothic-style castle. It is one of the few circular fortresses in Europe, having been constructed in the fourteenth century for King James II of Majorca. Originally housing the Majorcan kings, it was then utilized for a considerable amount of time as a military prison from the 18th until the mid-20th century. Today, under civilian administration, it is one of the top tourist destinations of the island and home to the history museum of the city. The upper complex of the Herodion, a round hilltop palace on the West Bank dating from 15 BCE with a great central tower and three smaller towers atop, appears to have served as the model for the layout of the castle, which consists of a circular floor with round towers attached to it. They are connected, and the main one is connected to the complex via a tall bridge that spans the surrounding moat. Architect Pere Salvà, who also contributed to the building of the Royal Palace of La Almudaina, constructed the majority of the fortification between 1300 and 1311 for King James II of Majorca and Aragon with the help of other skilled masons. The building was constructed using rock from the hill on which the castle is located, which has finally caused fissures to show. After the construction of the castle and the installation of cannon, the battlements atop the balconies and on the barbican vanished, quickly followed by those in each tower; loopholes were constructed in their place. When the Kings of Mallorca were not present in mainland Europe, the castle was initially their home. In the 17th century, viceroys hardly rarely utilized the castle as a residence. Only once in its history has the castle fallen into enemy hands, following an attack in 1521 amid the Majorcan Second Revolt of the Brotherhoods. Originally built to house the royal court of James of Mallorca, the building-design blends defensive features with palace requirements. The most remarkable aspect of the structure is its circular form, which is exclusive to Mallorca. Its three smaller towers, the donjon, and the inner yard are all shaped in the same way. The donjon of the castle is surrounded by a moat. The focal point ought to be the circle of inner yard. There is a well in the center of it, indicating that a cistern is underneath. The palace is designed as a two-story edifice that encircles the center courtyard. A gallery of gothic semicircular arches faces this yard, providing access to all of its dependencies [Information and Image Credit : Bellver_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bellver_Castle ] [Image : Bellver_Castle, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Poniol60] [The copyright holder of the work (Image), has released this work into the public domain. This applies worldwide; In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: The copyright holder has granted anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law. (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Castillo_de_Bellver.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
28-Nov-2023 02 am
 

Sixth-largest castle site of Slovak history consists of the ruins of Spiš Castle to the east of the country. In the Spiš region, the castle is located above the villages of Žehra and Spišské Podhradie. In 1993, it was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The castle area is 39,000 square meters in size. The division of Slovak National Museum namely Spiš Museum at Levoča is in charge of overseeing it. On the site of an earlier castle, Spiš Castle was constructed in the twelfth century. It served as the political, administrative, commercial, and cultural hub of the Szepes County of Hungarian Kingdom. The dynasties that owned it before 1464 were the kings of Hungary, up to King Matthias Corvinus. Following it the Zápolya family ruled up to 1528, the Thurzó family between1531–1635, the Csáky family between1638–1945, and, from 1945 onward, the state of Czechoslovakia, and finally Slovakia. Originally a fortified Romanesque stone castle, by the second half of the thirteenth century a two-story Romanesque palace and a three-nave Romanesque-Gothic basilica had been built. The area of the castle was doubled by the construction of a second extramural settlement in the fourteenth century. In the fifteenth century, the castle underwent a complete reconstruction that included raising the walls and building a third extramural settlement. Approximately in 1470, a late Gothic chapel was added. The upper castle was transformed by the Zápolya clan into a cozy family home reminiscent of late Renaissance homes from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries through late Gothic architectural elements. The Csáky family, the last occupants of the Spiš Castle, left it in the early eighteenth century because they felt it was too uncomfortable to live in. They relocated to the recently constructed village palaces in Hodkovce, close to Žehra and Spišský Hrhov. A fire in 1780 completely destroyed the castle. There are a few theories, but the cause of the fire is unknown. One is that the Csáky family intentionally set it on fire in order to lower taxes because, at the time, buildings with roofs were subject to additional levies. Another theory is that the fire was caused by a lightning strike. A third theory holds that while some soldiers were producing moonshine inside the castle, they unintentionally lit the fire. Regardless, the castle was abandoned following the fire and started to deteriorate. In the latter half of the 20th century, considerable archaeological research was done at the castle, and it was partially rebuilt. The restored areas contain artifacts like torture devices that were once used in the castle, as well as exhibits from the Spiš Museum, which is in charge of overseeing the castle [Information and Image Credit : Spiš_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spi%C5%A1_Castle ] [Image : Aerial photograph of the castle; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Civertan ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Szepescivertanlegi4.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
27-Nov-2023 06 pm
 

Situated in the town of Srebrna Góra Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland, Fort Srebrna Góra, also known as Srebrnogórska Fortress, is a former military fort that is now a monument and museum. It was built between 1765 and 1777, while the area was a part of the Prussian Kingdom. As of May 1, 2004, the fort has been officially recognized as one of the national historic monuments of Poland. The Polish National Heritage Board is responsible for maintaining its listing. It has been recognized as a unique illustration of a mountain stronghold from the 18th century in Europe. Because of its firm bedrock base, the fort has been referred to as Gibraltar of Prussia or Gibraltar of Silesia. Frederick II, King of Prussia, gave the order in 1764–1777 to build the fortress at Srebrna Góra. With assistance from many Prussian military engineers, Ludwig Wilhelm Regeler, a Prussian architect, designed it. In the years that followed, some minor additions were made, but no significant changes were made; work on an adjacent flanked fort was started, but it was soon abandoned. The complex consists of multiple bastions, six forts, and related structures. The central Donżon Fort, located atop the Warowna Góra hill, serves as the primary fort of the complex. Perched atop the Sudety Mountains, the complex marks the natural boundary between the Silesian Lowlands and the Kłodzko Valley. Three hills are covered by the fort: Wielki Chochoł, Warowna Góra, and Ostróg. With enough supplies to last a year under siege, the fort could house a garrison of 4,000 troops. There were 264 artillery pieces defending it. The castle was built to protect a road that led from Prussian territory to Bohemian territory in the south, assisting in the defense against any potential Austrian attacks. It was stated that the construction cost 4.5 million Prussian thalers. During the siege, the attackers never managed to take control of the castle. The fortress was the scene of an actual fight only once, on June 28, 1807, when Napoleonic forces successfully besieged it during the War of the Fourth Coalition. It was deemed obsolete by 1860, and the garrison was lowered. In 1867, it was abandoned as a functioning military fortress [Information and Image Credit : Fort_Srebrna_Góra, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Srebrna_G%C3%B3ra ] [Image : Aerial view of the fort; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Tomekziel ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Twierdzasrebrnogorska.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
25-Nov-2023 07 pm
 

The castle known as Kriebstein Castle is located in the German state of Saxony, close to the town of Waldheim. The Dresden Main State Archive holds the original document pertaining to Kriebstein Castle, which was first mentioned on October 4, 1384. Above the River Zschopau and its sheer craggs, the castle stands. Situated at the tip of a hill spur, encircled by the Zschopau, which flows around the point in a broad bow, the castle is categorized as a spur castle within the topographical grouping of hill castles. A man-made ditch, known as the Halsgraben, divides the rising terrain behind the castle from the rock upon which it is perched. The Kriebstein is a typological hybrid of an oval-shaped ringwork castle, or Ringburg, and a tower castle, or Turmburg. Standing tall on the tallest cliff, the colossal keep dominates the entire scene. The tower, including its weather vane, is 45 meters tall with sides that measure 22 by 12 meters. The castle has a distinct and thus distinctive profile because to its late medieval oriel turrets and flèche. The tower-shaped gatehouse, the kitchen, the curtain wall with its household wing, and other structures, such as the chapel wing, are arranged around the keep. The double-bay, cross-ribbed vaulted Gothic hall and the back of the castle are located on the east side of the chapel wing. Located right above the steep slopes of Zschopau River, this building complex features a continuous upper floor that dates back to the 17th century. Directly connected to the central keep of the castle is the Late Gothic kitchen structure. The entire area is encircled by a residential wing that served as the great hall, the well house, and the northern defensive wall that connected to the gatehouse. Today, it serves as a concert and event space; weddings are held in the castle [Information and Image Credit : Kriebstein_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kriebstein_Castle ] [Image : Kriebstein Castle; Wikipedia-Image-Author-Source : Burg Kriebstein (Sachsen) , Uploaded by X-Weinzar] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Burg_Kriebstein.jpg ] #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
20-Nov-2023 12 am
 

Situated in the Aragon autonomous area of Spain, next to the town by the same name in Huesca Province, is the Romanesque Castle and Abbey known as the Castle of Loarre. It is among the oldest castles of Spain. Because of its important location on the frontier, the fortress was primarily constructed in the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. Following reconquest by Sancho el Mayor,1063-1094 A.D., of the surrounding regions the first of the two main building programs got underway around 1020. Following 1070, Loarre gained significance. King Sancho Ramírez established an Augustinian canon community in Loarre in 1073, and it was from Loarre that he prepared to conquer Huesca in 1094. But all of the possessions of Loarre were given to a brand-new royal monastery at Montearagon in 1097 by his successor, Peter I of Aragon and Navarre. Based on the available evidence, it appears that the second major construction program took place between 1073 and 1097, as many buildings clearly originate from this time frame. Nonetheless, it is also evident from a comparison with other monuments that the construction and ornamental program persisted into the twelfth century. Because the castle was perched on a rocky outcrop, its layout had to change. Unlike many other castles, Loarre was made up of a number of buildings enclosed by curtain walls. The interior layout at first featured a chapel hidden behind a number of curtain walls and two towers. Another chapel was constructed outside the castle walls in a Romanesque style towards the end of the eleventh century. The castle is eight towers and outermost walls date back to the 13th or 14th century. Numerous restorations have been carried out on the church and castle; the most significant one occurred in 1913, and others, especially in the 1970s, resulted in the reconstruction of numerous crumbling walls and towers [Information and Image Credit : Castle_of_Loarre, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle_of_Loarre ] [Image : Castillo de Loarre; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Samueloku] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:El_famoso_castillo_de_Loarre.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
19-Nov-2023 07 pm
 

The 16th-century Lindisfarne Castle is situated on Holy Island, close to Berwick-upon-Tweed in Northumberland, England. Sir Edwin Lutyens made significant alterations to the castle in 1901. A causeway allows access to the island from the mainland during low tide. The region where the castle is situated was formerly a highly unstable boundary between England and Scotland; Viking raids were also common in this area. In 1537, Lindisfarne Priory was eventually closed down as a priory as part of the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Following the suppression of the priory, army of Henry VIII converted the remnants into a naval depot. Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland, was given an order by Henry VIII in 1542 to defend the location in case of a Scottish invasion. Ralph Cleisbye, the captain of the fort, possessed a falcon, two brass sakers, a wheel-mounted demi-culverin, and another fixed demi-culverin by December 1547. Making use of the advantageous strategic location of the island, a small fort was constructed in 1549 on Beblowe, the highest point of the island, which is about a kilometer east of the monastery structures and has a view of the harbor. When military engineer Sir Richard Lee examined the region in 1565, all he found was a turf rampart and a decaying platform. After that, Elizabeth I ordered renovations to be made to the fort in order to fortify it and provide gun platforms for the newest advancements in artillery technology. The cost of these 1570–1571 works was £1191. The previous structures served as a supply of building stone for the current project. The need for the fortress vanished when James I united the Scottish and English thrones upon coming to power in England. At this point, the little harbor of Lindisfarne was guarded by the castle, which was still under garrison from Berwick. The Jacobite rebels briefly took over the castle in the eighteenth century, but they were swiftly recaptured by Berwick soldiers who imprisoned them. The rebels managed to escape by digging a way out and hiding at nearby Bamburgh Castle for nine days before successfully making their getaway. Later on, the castle served as a coast guard watchtower and developed into a little tourist destination. The historic fort was sketched by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in 1901 [Information and Image Credit : Lindisfarne_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lindisfarne_Castle ] [Image : Lindisfarne Castle, a 16th-century fortification made into a family home by Sir Edwin Lutyens in 1901; Wikipedia-Image-Author : matthew Hunt] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LindisfarneCastleHolyIsland.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Heritage and Geographical Sites
05-Nov-2023 03 am
 

The glacial valley of Glendalough, located in County Wicklow, Ireland, is well-known for the Early Medieval monastic community that St. Kevin established there in the sixth century. A galena lead mine operated at the head of Glendalough Valley from 1825 until 1957. In addition, Glendalough is a popular destination for rock climbing, picnicking, and strolling along a system of well-maintained routes with different levels of difficulty. A boy student of Eoghan, Lochan, and Eanna, three holy men, Kevin was descended from one of the ruling houses in Leinster. It was around this period that he visited Glendalough. Later, he planned to return and establish a monastery at the confluence of the two rivers with a small group of monks. Writings by Kevin mention his battle with the knights at Glendalough; modern academics interpret this as a metaphor for his introspective journey and his own temptations. His reputation as a holy man grew, drawing a large following. His death occurred approximately in 618, on June 3rd. Glendalough prospered for the next six centuries, and the Irish Annals mention abbot deaths and invasions on the community. Approximately thirty meters in length, the second-longest Viking longship ever recorded was constructed circa 1042 using oak wood from Glendalough. Although the community was destroyed by English forces in 1398, it remained a significant local church and a site of pilgrimage. The current remnants of Glendalough reveal very little of its past. During its peak, the monastery featured workshops, spaces for writing and copying manuscripts, guest homes, a hospital, farm buildings, and residences for a sizable number of laypeople in addition to the monks. The structures that are still standing most likely date from the tenth or twelfth century. The Round Tower, which is located 33 meters above the ground, is the most well-known feature in Glendalough. It was constructed by the monks of the monastery of St. Kevin approximately a millennium ago. When lightning struck the conical roof in 1876, it had to be replaced. The name Cloigtheach, which translates to Bell Tower, suggests that of the primary function of the tower. On occasion, when the monastery was being attacked, the monks would seek safety in the towers. Additionally, they functioned as beacons and watchtowers for advancing pilgrims and monks   [Information and Image Credit : Glendalough, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glendalough ]  [Information Credit : https://visitwicklow.ie/listing/the-round-tower-glendalough ] [Image : Gleann Dá Loch; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Denzillacey] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:St._Kevin%27s_Kitchen,_Glendalough,_Co._Wicklow_(2023).jpg ] #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
05-Nov-2023 02 am
 

Founded in County Kilkenny, Ireland, in the latter part of the 12th century, Jerpoint Abbey is a ruined Cistercian abbey. On the R448 regional road, it is situated 2.5 kilometers to the southwest of Thomastown. There is an exhibition at the visitor center. It has been within the jurisdiction of the Office of Public Works since 1880 and has been designated as a national monument. It was built in 1180 by the Osraige King, Donchadh Ó Donnchadha Mac Giolla Phátraic. It was given to the Blessed Virgin as a gift. Stone carvings are a distinctive feature of Jerpoint, and one can be found near the grave of Felix Ua Duib Sláin, Bishop of the Diocese of Ossory. Up to Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII of England, the abbey was thriving. The civil parish of Jerpoint Abbey, sometimes known as Abbey-Jerpoint, in the barony of Knocktopher, is based on the name of Jerpoint Abbey. It is located close to Newtown Jerpoint, an aging corporate town. The monks of the Cistercian Order were relocated to this location in 1180 by the King of the Kingdom of Ossory from a remote area of Ossory. Here, Domnall Mac Gilla Patraic, King of Osraige, erected an earlier Benedictine monastery in 1160, which is likely where he established the abbey. Up to Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII, the abbey prospered. Oliver Grace, the last abbot, gave it up to the king. Philip and Mary gave it to James Butler, the 9th Earl of Ormond, in 1541. The current ruins are quite substantial and include various examples of early English and later Norman building. Jerpoint is renowned for its stone carvings, one of which can be found in the tomb of Felix Ua Duib Sláin. There is a square, angular, beleaguered tower. The 12th century is when the church with its Romanesque elements was built. Tomb sculptures from the 13th to 16th centuries can be found in the transept chapels. The cloister and tower are fifteenth-century structures. The sculptured cloister arcade at the Abbey features intricate embellishments  [Information and Image Credit : Jerpoint_Abbey, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerpoint_Abbey ] [Image : Jerpoint Abbey ruins from above; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Lisa B. Doyle] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jerpoint_Abbey_Ruins_from_Above.JPG ] #History #Architecture 










@Old World
25-Sep-2023 02 am
 

Near modern-day Shahhat, Libya, is the ancient Greek and later Roman city of Cyrene. The pentapolis, a group of five Greek cities in the area, was its most significant member. Eastern Libya was given the ancient name Cyrenaica, which it has kept up to this day. On a ridge in the Jebel Akhdar uplands, Cyrene is located. The spring, Cyra, which the Greeks dedicated to Apollo, was the source of the name of the city. The numerous colossal temples, stoas, theaters, bathhouses, churches, and sumptuous villas that make up the archaeological remains span several hectares. The Necropolis of Cyrene encircles the city. A dynasty of monarchs known as the Battiads initially ruled the city, which was founded by Greek colonists in the late seventh century BC. They became wealthy and powerful as a result of successive waves of immigration and the export of horses and silphium, a medicinal plant. They had increased their control over the other Cyrenaica cities by the fifth century BC. In the fourth century BC, Aristippus, a student of Socrates, established the Cyrenaics, a school of thought, and it eventually became their headquarters. The city alternated in the Hellenistic Age between serving as the seat of an autonomous monarchy and Ptolemaic Egypt. It transferred to the Roman Republic in 96 BC and was included in the province of Crete and Cyrenaica. During the Kitos War, Jewish fighters destroyed the city in 115 AD. Over the course of the next century, it was gradually restored. The city was damaged by earthquakes in 262 and 365 AD, but some inhabitants persisted into the early Byzantine era [Information Credit : Cyrene,_Libya, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrene,_Libya ] [Image Credit : Archaeological_site, Wikipedia] [Image : Sanctuary of Apollo at Cyrene; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Maher27777] [The copyright holder of the work (Image), release this work into the public domain. This applies worldwide; In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: The copyright holder granted anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.] [(Please Relate to Original Image URL for More Usage Property) ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cyrene8.jpg ] #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
18-Sep-2023 11 pm
 

The word Ostrog in Russian refers to a small fort that is frequently unmanned and made of wood. Palisade walls composed of sharpened tree trunks that were 4-6 meters high surrounded ostrogs. The phrase -- Strogat, which means -- to shave the wood in Russian, is where the name comes from. In contrast to the massive kremlins that served as the central hubs of Russian cities, ostrogs were more limited military fortifications. Ostrogs were frequently constructed inside major fortress lines, like the Great Abatis Line, or in isolated locations. The term Ostrog has been used to describe the forts built in Siberia by Russian explorers since the 17th century, when the Russian conquest of Siberia got underway. Later, many of these forts became sizable Siberian cities. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the term ostrog was frequently used to refer to a prison, and Siberian ostrogs later came to be associated with captivity [Information and Image Credit : Ostrog_(fortress), Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostrog_(fortress) ] [Image : The tower of Ilimsky ostrog, now in Taltsy Museum in Irkutsk, Siberia; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Dr. A. Hugentobler ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for more Image Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-URL :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taltsy_Museum_Irkutsk_Ostrog_Tower_200007280018.jpg ] #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
16-Sep-2023 11 pm
 

French fortified city Carcassonne is located in Aude district of Occitania. It serves as the prefecture of the department. Carcassonne, which has been inhabited since the Neolithic Age, is situated in the Aude plain between two ancient trade routes that connected the Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea and the Massif Central to the Pyrénées. Ancient Romans immediately understood its strategic value, and they occupied its hilltop until the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The Visigoths conquered Septimania in the fifth century, and in their newly created Visigothic Kingdom, they erected the city of Carcassonne. The Gallo-Roman era and later medieval castle known as the Cité de Carcassonne was renovated in 1853 by the thinker and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. As a result of the extraordinary preservation and restoration of the medieval citadel, it was included on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1997. Consequently, the economy of Carcassonne is mainly dependent on tourism, but it also depends on manufacturing and winemaking. Since the Neolithic era, people have been aware of its strategic location halfway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. When the Romans fortified the hilltop in 100 BC and subsequently established it as the colonia of Julia Carsaco, Carcassonne started to be recognized strategically. The Visigothic ruler Theodoric II had controlled Carcassonne since 453 when the Romans officially handed up Septimania to him in 462. The county of Carcassonne, a medieval lordship, was in charge of the city and its surroundings. It frequently joined forces with the county of Razès. In France, Arab and Berber Muslim forces invaded the region of Septimania in 719 and overthrew the local Visigoth Kingdom in 720. After the Frankish conquest of Narbonne in 759, the Muslim Arabs and Berbers were defeated by the Christian Franks and fled to Andalusia after 40 years of occupation, and the Carolingian king Pepin the Short came up strengthened. As an Occitan Cathar stronghold during this time, Carcassonne rose to fame for its participation in the Albigensian Crusades. The border province of Roussillon was given to France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, which diminished the military importance of Carcassonne. The first fortification to employ hoardings during a siege was Carcassonne. Through square holes in the face of the wall, temporary wooden platforms and walls would be attached to the upper walls of the fortress, protecting the defenders on the wall and allowing defenders to extend past the wall to launch projectiles at the attackers at the wall below, acting much like a permanent machicolation [Information and Image Credit : Carcassonne, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcassonne ] [Image : Aerial photograph of the Cité de Carcassonne ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Chensiyuan; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for more Image Usage Property)] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-URL :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1_carcassonne_aerial_2016.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
14-Sep-2023 01 am
 

South of Veytaux in the canton of Vaud, on an island in Lake Geneva, lies a castle called Chillon Castle. It is located on the slender shore between Montreux and Villeneuve at the eastern end of the lake, providing access to the Rhône-Valley-Alpine region. Among the most popular medieval castles in Switzerland and Europe is Chillon. It was successively occupied from 1536 until 1798 by the House of Savoy, then by the Bernese, and is currently a part of the State of Vaud. It is a Swiss Cultural Property of National Significance. Its contemporary equivalent, the Fort de Chillon, is concealed by the mountain-incline. The island of Chillon, an oval limestone rock advancing in Lake Geneva between Montreux and Villeneuve with a steep side on one side and the lake and its steep bottom on the other side, is particularly where the castle of Chillon is located. The location of the castle is significant because it guards the path between the Rhone valley, which provides a direct route to Italy, and the Vaud Riviera, which gives access to the north towards Germany and France. It also provides a glimpse of the Savoyard coast on the other side of the lake. Thus, a garrison could manage traffic on the way to Italy and charge a toll, both militarily and commercially. Since the Roman era, Chillon has served as a military outpost. The construction of the existing castle took place during three eras: the Savoy, Bernese, and Vaudois periods. Initially, Chillon served as a Roman stronghold that protected the important route through the Alpine Alps. In the nineteenth century, archeological digs turned up Roman-era artifacts as well as Bronze Age artifacts. Before a square donjon was erected in the tenth century, the Romans would have fortified the area from a double wooden fence. Although the oldest components of the castle have not been precisely dated, the first documented mention of it dates to the year 1005 A.D. To regulate the route from Burgundy to the Great Saint Bernard Pass, it was constructed. The Counts of Savoy had a fleet of ships on Lake Geneva, and from the middle of the 12th century, the castle served as their summer residence. The dukes of Savoy used the fortress to imprison prisoners during the Wars of Religion in the sixteenth century. A Genevois and Bernese force conquered the fortress in 1536, and all the inmates were freed. Until Chillon was turned into a state jail in 1733, the castle served as the home of the Bernese bailiff. The Lemanic Republic was established in 1798 after the French-speaking canton of Vaud expelled the German-speaking Bernese rulers. To support them in maintaining their independence from the other Swiss, the Vaudois invited French troops. Chillon served as a weapons and ammunition storage facility when the French invaded and occupied. The Romantic aesthetic prompted some 19th-century restoration work on the Castle that sacrificed historical accuracy. A thorough restoration of the monument was started at the end of the 19th century, and as a result, an ethic of monumental restoration was formed. This was one of the first instances where archaeology and history were used to restore a structure in a historically accurate manner [Information and Image Credit : Chillon_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chillon_Castle ] [Image : Chillon Castle at nightfall with the Dents du Midi in the background.] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Giles Laurent; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for more Image Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-URL :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:001_Chateau_de_Chillon_and_Dents_du_Midi_Photo_by_Giles_Laurent.jpg ]  #History #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
12-Sep-2023 03 am
 

The Königsberg Castle served as a landmark for Königsberg, Germany, the capital of East Prussia, which later became Kaliningrad, Russia since 1946. The castle stood where an Old Prussian fort called Tuwangste once stood close to the Pregel River at a crucial crossing point in Prussian territory. Three Prussian villages in the area were later named —Löbenicht, Sackheim, and Tragheim. The Teutonic Knights replaced the Prussian fort with a temporary one made of earthworks and timber after capturing the area in 1255. By 1257, a brand-new Ordensburg castle made of stone was being built. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, the castle underwent numerous rounds of significant expansion and refortification. The Teutonic Order Grandmasters lived in the fortification, which eventually evolved into a castle, and Prussian emperors later made it their home. The splendid palace is described in the 1815 Encyclopaedia Britannica as having a handsome library and a hall that is 83.5 meters long and 18 meters wide without supports to support it. With 284 steps up to the summit and a height of almost 100 meters, the gothic tower of the castle offered panoramic views. This enormous structure, which was surrounded by a sizable quadrangle and was located virtually in the middle of the city, was once the headquarters of the Teutonic Order. In the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, it was expanded and changed. On the Schloßkirche, often known as the palace church, on the west wing, Frederick I was crowned in 1701 and William I in 1861. The Order of the arms of Black Eagle members were inscribed on the walls and columns. The 83 m long and 18 m tall Moscowiter-Saal was located above the church. The apartments of Hohenzollerns and the Prussia Museum were both accessible to the general public every day up until the end of World War II. The museum housed numerous paintings by the artist Lovis Corinth as well as 240,000 exhibits from the Prussian collection, a collection from the Königsberg State and University Library, and more [Information and Image Credit : Königsberg_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6nigsberg_Castle ] [Image : Königsberg Castle courtyard in c. 1900] [The Work (Image) is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1928. The author of this image from Switzerland is unknown, and the image was published at least 70 years ago. It is therefore in the public domain in Switzerland by virtue of Art. 31 of the Swiss Copyright Act. (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [ Art. 31 of the Swiss Copyright Act Link :   https://shorturl.at/dnQR3 ] [Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:K%C3%B6nigsberg_Castle_courtyard.jpg ]  #History #Castles #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
08-Sep-2023 04 pm
 

A fortification from the Scaliger era, the Scaligero Castle serves as a gateway to historic area of Sirmione on Lake Garda. One of the best-preserved castles in all of Italy. With 308,459 visits in 2019, it was the 22nd most popular attraction in Italy. On the southernmost point of Lake Garda in Northern Italy, it was constructed in the second half of the 14th century. The Scaligeri, who give it its name, are the Veronese Della Scala family. Construction was started on their behalf. From 1259 through 1387, the family held sway over Verona and a sizable portion of the Venetian region. After the Della Scala family submitted to Venice in 1405, the fortress was later under the jurisdiction of Republic of Venice beginning in the 15th century. It remained a crucial fortification in the region. With the construction of the nearby fortress in Peschiera del Garda in the 16th century, its prominence began to fade. Up to the Italian Union, it was still utilized as a fortification and armory before becoming the municipal government-office of Sirmione. It underwent restoration beginning in 1919, the year it became into a museum and a popular tourist destination. However, it was not completely reconstructed until 2018 after the internal waters of the castle were cleared. The interior docks are the only remaining portion of a fortified port from the fourteenth century [Information Credit : Scaligero_Castle_(Sirmione), Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scaligero_Castle_(Sirmione) ] [Image : Scaligero Castle Facade, Italy , by Natalia Yefremova, Pexels; Image-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/scaligero-castle-facade-italy-8986604/ ]   #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
05-Sep-2023 03 am
 

The historic Guaita castle, whose construction goes back to the 11th century, is located in the little state of San Marino. The three tower architectural complex actually consists of more than just the medieval castle. The Guaita, often referred to as the Rocca, is one of three towered summits that look out over San Marino, the capital of the country. Cesta and Montale are the other two. The stronghold is the most well-known and the oldest of the three towers built atop Monte Titano. Since its establishment, it has been used as a prison, and it is shown on the flag and coat of arms of the country. Since 2008, it has been listed as a World Heritage Site. Visitors to the historical site come to admire the one-of-a-kind, century-old building as well as the breathtaking view of the little state. The Guaita tower-name translates to -- The First Tower -- in Italian. It had kept its original appearance by the year 1475. Over the span of 200 years, the gymnast has undergone nearly continual reconstruction beginning at the end of the 15th century. The facility was constructed as a prison and maintained its gloomy status until 1970, making it one of the oldest prisons in the world. The castle is now completely outfitted for tourist use. The superb viewing decks of the tower are located at the summit. It rises about 750 meters above sea level  [Information Credit : Guaita, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guaita ] [Information Credit : https://www.orangesmile.com/extreme/en/ancient-castles/guaita-tower.htm ] [Image : Large View of Guita Castle] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Commonists] [(Please Also Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fortress_of_Guaita_-_First_Tower_(San_Marino).jpg ] #Castles #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
02-Sep-2023 09 pm
 

Province of Biscay in Northern Spain is home to the castle known as Butrón, which is situated in Gatika. It was initially built in the Middle Ages, but Francisco de Cubas started an almost total reconstruction of it in 1878 that gave it its current form. The castle is designed after Bavarian castle models and has a fairy-tale appearance. Instead of producing a structure where people could really live, the current structure was constructed as a pastime for its then-owner and to generate something that is visually stunning. Since the towers have limited usable space and many areas of the castle have outdoor connections, it would actually be extremely uncomfortable to live there given the damp Basque weather. There is a park surrounding the structure, which has palm trees and other exotic flora. According to Kate Middleton in a BBC interview with David Ferald, getting married in this fantasy castle was her ambition. It was abandoned before being rebuilt and made accessible to the public. This did not work out, so the building was closed to visitors but the grounds were still accessible. Despite being purchased by INBISA in November 2005, the structure is still covered by the general protection provided by Spanish Law 16/1985 regarding historic buildings in Spain [Information and Image Credit : Butrón, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butr%C3%B3n ] [Image: Current state of the castle; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Enekochan] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [(Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)]  [Wikipedia-Source-Image-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fachada_del_castillo_de_Butr%C3%B3n.jpg ]  #Castles #History #Architecture










@Heritage and Geographical Sites
02-Sep-2023 06 pm
 

In the English county of Somerset, Glastonbury Tor is a tor that is close to Glastonbury and is topped by the Grade I-listed, roofless St. Michaels Tower. The location is administered by the National Trust and is a scheduled monument. The Tor has a number of other enduring mythological and spiritual links. It is mentioned in Celtic mythology, particularly in narratives involving King Arthur. The Somerset Levels give way to a conical mound of clay and Blue Lias. It developed as a result of the erosion of nearby softer layers, which revealed the hard sandstone cap. The slopes of the hills are terraced, but the process by which they were created is still a mystery. Neolithic flint tools found at the summit of the Tor indicate that the area has been occupied since prehistory, maybe for an extended period of time. When the nearby ruins of Glastonbury Lake Village were discovered there in 1892, it was established that an Iron Age settlement had existed there between 300 and 200 BC on an easily guarded island in the fens. Although there is no proof that the Tor was inhabited permanently, discoveries like Roman pottery do indicate that it was frequented. The history of the monument and church was attempted to be clarified through archaeological digs during the 20th century, although some details of this history are still unknown. Iron Age to Roman-era artifacts from human visitation have been discovered. On the peak, there were a number of structures built during the Saxon and early medieval eras that have been identified as an early church and hermitage of monks. An ancient head of wheel cross from the tenth or eleventh century has been found. The stone Church of St. Michael was erected on the site in the fourteenth century after the earlier wooden church was destroyed by an earthquake in 1275. Although it has been repaired and partially rebuilt numerous times, the tower still stands [Information Credit : Glastonbury_Tor, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glastonbury_Tor ] [Image : Terraces on the Tor; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Rodw;] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported ; [(Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glastonbury_Tor_from_north_east_showing_terraces.jpg ] #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
26-Aug-2023 07 pm
 

The Gwalior Fort, sometimes called the Gwāliiyar Qila, is a hill fort close to Gwalior in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The fort has been around at least since the 10th century, and inscriptions and monuments discovered within the area that today makes up the fort campus suggest that it may have been around as early as the beginning of the 6th century. Uncertainty surrounds the precise time frame of the construction of Gwalior Fort. The fort was supposedly constructed in 3 CE by a native ruler named Suraj Sen. Man Singh Tomar, the Tomar Rajput king, constructed the present-day fort, which consists of a defensive structure and two residences. Throughout its history, the fort has been governed by a variety of different kings. Man Singh Tomar, a Tomar Rajput prince who ruled from 1486 to 1516 CE, constructed the Man Mandir and Gujari Mahal, the latter one for his wife, Queen Mrignayani, and the two principal palaces of the fort, the Gujari Mahal and Man Mandir. One of the names for Gwalipa is where the word Gwalior originates. Legend has it that Gwalipa healed the local chieftain Suraj Sen of leprosy, and out of respect for him, Suraj Sen named the city of Gwalior after him. The king built a fort and gave it the name of the sage out of gratitude. The sage gave the king the title Pal, which means Protector, and informed him that as long as his family holds this title, the fort will remain in their ownership. The fort was ruled by 83 of the descendants of Suraj Sen Pal, but Tej Karan, the 84th, lost power. The inscriptions at fort-campus and monuments suggest that it may have existed as early as the beginning of the sixth century. A sun temple constructed in the sixth century under the rule of the Huna ruler Mihirakula is mentioned in a Gwalior inscription. The Gurjara-Pratiharas constructed the Teli ka Mandir in the ninth century, which is presently found inside the fort. By the 10th century, when it is first recorded in the historical records, the fort had unquestionably been built. At that time, the Kachchhapaghatas were in charge of the fort, most likely as feudatories of the Chandelas. The fort is situated atop a sandstone outcrop on Gopachal, a lonely rocky hill. It is a long, narrow, steep feature. The Gwalior range rock-formations are made of ochre-colored sandstone that has been coated in basalt [Information and Image Credit : Gwalior_Fort, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gwalior_Fort ] [Image : The Gwalior fort from afar; Wikipedia-Image Author : Rohan Kalbhor ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Image-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fort_with_city.jpg ]  #History #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
13-Aug-2023 09 pm
 

In the western Highlands of Scotland, about a mile from the settlement of Dornie, is the tidal island with a Scottish castle known as Eilean Donan. The original fortress of the island, constructed in the thirteenth century and used as a stronghold by the Clan Mackenzie and its allies, the Clan MacRae, was taken by them in 1563. However, government ships demolished the castle in 1719 in retaliation for the participation of the Mackenzies in the Jacobite uprisings at the beginning of the 18th century. The original castle was rebuilt in the 20th century by Lieutenant-Colonel John Macrae-Gilstrap to become the current structure. One of the 40 National Scenic Areas of Scotland, Kintail, includes Eilean Donan. Eilean Donan is named in honor of the Celtic martyr Donnán of Eigg, who died in 617. There is no sign of the church that Donnán is claimed to have founded on the island. It is probable that around the sixth or seventh century, an early Christian monastic cell was established on the island. A fortification from the Iron Age or the early Middle Ages may have existed on the island, as evidenced by the discovery of stone fragments that have vitrified. During the rule of Alexander II,1214–1249, in the first half of the thirteenth century, a massive curtain-wall castle that encircled much of the island was built. The region around the island served as a good defensive position against Norse expeditions at the time since it was on the border between the Norse-Celtic Lordship of the Isles and the Earldom of Ross. According to a foundation legend, the son of a Matheson chief developed the ability to converse with birds. As a result of this talent and numerous overseas exploits, he amassed wealth, power and the esteem of Alexander II, who commissioned him to construct the castle to protect his domain. The presence of only one person on the island was all that was known about it in 2001 [Information and Image Credit : Eilean_Donan, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eilean_Donan ] [Image : Castle ruins, sometime before 1911] [This UK artistic or literary work, of which the author is unknown and cannot be ascertained by reasonable enquiry, is in the public domain because it is one of the following: • A photograph, which has never previously been made available to the public (e.g. by publication or display at an exhibition) and which was taken more than 70 years ago (before 1 January 1953); or • A photograph, which was made available to the public (e.g. by publication or display at an exhibition) more than 70 years ago (before 1 January 1953); or • An artistic work other than a photograph (e.g. a painting), or a literary work, which was made available to the public (e.g. by publication or display at an exhibition) more than 70 years ago (before 1 January 1953). This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1928] [(Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-URL :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eilean_Donan_Castle,_pre_1911.jpg ]  #History #Castles #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
13-Aug-2023 02 am
 

The Wallace Monument, also known as the National Wallace Monument, is a 67-meter tower perched atop Abbey Craig of Scotland, a hilltop that provides a panoramic view of Stirling. It is in honor of Sir William Wallace, a Scottish hero from the 13th and 14th centuries. The public can access the tower by paying a small entrance fee. From the base of the cliff on which it is perched, visitors approach on foot. The last observation platform, with three exhibition rooms inside the body of the tower, is reached after 246 steps from the entrance. Visitors with disabilities are unable to access the tower. Following a fundraising drive that coincided with a revival of Scottish nationalism in the 19th century, the tower was built. William Burns and Rev. Charles Rogers launched the campaign in Glasgow in 1851. After resignation of Rogers about 1855, Burns assumed sole leadership. It was largely supported by contributions from a number of foreign contributors, including Italian national leader Giuseppe Garibaldi, in addition to public subscription. As Grand Master Mason of Scotland, the Duke of Atholl lay the foundation stone in 1861. Sir Archibald Alison delivered a brief address at the ceremony. The monument is a 67-metre sandstone tower constructed in the Victorian Gothic style that was finished in 1869 to the plans of architect John Thomas Rochead for a price of £18,000. The tower is located atop the Abbey Craig, a volcanic outcrop that towers over Cambuskenneth Abbey. It is said that Wallace saw the assembling of the army of King Edward I of England from this location immediately before the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297. The entire public is welcome to visit the memorial [Information and Image Credit : Wallace_Monument, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallace_Monument ] [Image: The Monument ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Finlay McWalter ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported ; [(Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source-Image-URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wfm_wallace_monument.jpg ]  #History  #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
26-Mar-2023 07 pm
 

Al-Khazneh (Petra-Jordan) is one of the most ornate temples in Petra, a Nabatean Kingdom city which was inhabited by Nabatean Arabs. This structure was hewn out of a sandstone rock face, like the most of the other structures in this historic town, including the Monastery. The building is thought to have served as mausoleum of King Aretas IV of Nabatea in the first century AD. It is among the top tourist destinations in the country of Jordan and the surrounding area. The local Bedouins, who thought it held treasures, gave it the name Al-Khazneh, or The Treasury, in the early 19th century. [Information-Credit : Al-Khazneh, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Khazneh ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic ; Image Author who Modified : MrPanyGoff, Wikipedia; (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URLs for More Usage Properties)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en ; Wikipedia-Image URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Al_Khazneh_Petra_edit_2.jpg ] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
26-Mar-2023 03 am
 

In the Rajsamand district of the western Indian state of Rajasthan, Kumbhalgarh, commonly referred to as the Great Wall of India, is a Mewar fortification on the western slope of the Aravalli Hills, only 48 kilometres from Rajsamand city. About 84 kilometres separate it from Udaipur. It is a part of Hill Forts of Rajasthan, a World Heritage Site. Rana Kumbha constructed it in the 15th century. Kumbhalgarh Fort and five other Rajasthani forts were included in the list of forts included in the Hill Forts of Rajasthan category when the 37th session of World Heritage Committee was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in 2013. Mandan, who served as the principal architect of the fort, described his method of construction in his book Rajvallabh. The fort complex is one of the biggest in the world. The 36 kilometre perimeter walls of the fort of Kumbhalgarh, which was constructed on a mountaintop 1,100 metres above sea level in the Aravalli range, make it one of the longest walls in the world. The thickness of the frontal walls is fifteen feet. There are seven fortified entrances in Kumbhalgarh. The fort contains more than 70 temples, including Jain and Hindu temples. One can view kilometres into the Aravalli Range from the palace-roof [Information Credit : Kumbhalgarh, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumbhalgarh ] [Image: Aerial view of a portion of the Kumbhalgarh Fort wall; Wikipedia Image Author : Heman kumar meena ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URLs for More Usage Properties)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia-Source Image URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aerial_view_of_Kumbhalgarh.jpg ] #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
20-Mar-2023 03 am
 

The Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt constructed the Lighthouse of Alexandria, also known as the Pharos of Alexandria, during the rule of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who lived from 280 and 247 BC. Its total height is thought to have been at minimum 330 feet. It was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and the tallest man-made edifice in the world for many centuries. Between 956 and 1323 AD, three earthquakes heavily affected the lighthouse, which eventually turned into a deserted remnant. After the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the still-standing Great Pyramid of Giza, it was the third longest-lasting ancient wonder. It continued to exist in portion until 1480 A.D., when the final of its remaining stones were taken to construct the Citadel of Qaitbay on the site. Pharos was a little island located on the western side of the Nile Delta. On an isthmus facing Pharos, Alexander the Great established Alexandria in 332 BC. Later, a mole—a substantial and mostly stone structure used as a pier, breakwater, or causeway between two bodies of water—was erected to connect Alexandria with Pharos. On the west side of the mole was the port of Eunostos, with its inner basin Kibotos now much enlarged to become the contemporary harbour, and on the east side was the Great Harbour, now an open bay. The lighthouse was was built in the third century BCE. The first Ptolemy established himself as king in 305 BC, following the demise of Alexander the Great, and shortly afterward ordered the construction of the lighthouse. It took twelve years and 800 talents of silver to erect the structure, which was completed under the rule of his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus. The tower was claimed to have been constructed primarily out of solid slabs of limestone and granite, and the light was emitted by a furnace at the top. On a dive into Eastern Harbour of Alexandria in 1994, a group of French archaeologists found several lighthouse remnants on the ocean floor. The Pharos and other underwater ancient Alexandrian ruins were part of plans for becoming an underwater museum in 2016 by the Ministry of State for Antiquities of Egypt [Information and Image Credit :: Lighthouse_of_Alexandria, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lighthouse_of_Alexandria ] [Image : Lighthouse of Alexandria by Philip Galle; 1572, Rijksmuseum] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The Work (Image) is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the life of Author plus 100 years or fewer. The Work (Image) is believed to be in Public Domain in the United States as well. (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URLs for More Usage Properties)] [Wikipedia Source-Image-Link : https://bit.ly/3n6bqqk ] #Art #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
01-Mar-2023 02 am
 

In the province of Burgos, the Peñaranda de Duero Castle of Spain is a well maintained Medieval structure. The castle was built in the tenth century, but Counts of Miranda del Castañar renovations in the fifteenth century significantly altered the structure. Only the crenellated arch of Las Monjas remains of the defensive wall that once encompassed the town, which nowadays marks the beginning of the castle. Throughout the 10th century, the fortress played a significant role in fortifying the border between the Moorish state of Al Andalus and the mediaeval Christian Kingdom of Castile. The castle is a small, walled enclosure with a central keep rising four stories high. The keep has three more square towers, two of which flank the ogival arch that serves as the entrance, in addition to battlements, a gallery of machiolations, and a rooftop terrace. Although a large portion of the keep has ornate wooden beams, the walls are made of solid stone ashlar stone. The Castle of Peñaranda de Duero is one of the many historical sites and popular tourist destinations in the region nowadays. There is a nominal entrance fee of between 1 and 2 euros for visitors [Information and Image Credit : Castle_of_Peñaranda_de_Duero, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle_of_Pe%C3%B1aranda_de_Duero ] [Image: Peñaranda Castle, Wikipedia-Author: Rowanwindwhistler ] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported; (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URLs for More Usage Properties)] [License Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Source-Image-Link: : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CastilloDePe%C3%B1arandaDeDuero20110625111805P1120520.jpg ] #Castles #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
26-Feb-2023 05 am
 

One of the most well-known structures of Budapest is the Halászbástya, or Fishermans Bastion, which is situated in the first district of the city next to Buda Castle. Due to the distinctive view of Budapest that can be seen from the Neo-Romanesque viewing terraces, it is one of the most significant tourist destinations. The infrastructure of the Fishermens Bastion is roughly 140 metres long, with the southern aisle being about 40 metres long, the northern aisle being about 65 metres long, and the elaborate centre parapet being about 35 metres long. Its seven steeply pitched stone towers represent the seven Hungarian chieftains that helped found Hungary in 895 A.D. The old walls, which were once a portion of a castle, were constructed in the 1700s. According to several researchers, the guild of fisherman or halász, who lived under the walls in the area known as Fishtown or Watertown, guarded this portion of the castle walls throughout the Middle Ages. Architect Frigyes Schulek, who was also in charge of restoring the Matthias Church, constructed the current building between 1895 and 1902 in the Neo-Romanesque style at the base of a section of the Buda Castle walls. It has been a part of Várkerület District of Budapest, or Buda Castle District, since 1987 and is one of the World Heritage Sites of the city [Information Credit : Fishermans Bastion, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisherman%27s_Bastion ] [Image: Fishermans Bastion in Budapest, Hungary; Crdeit: Zhenning SHI, Pexels; (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URLs for More Usage Properties) [Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/fishermans-bastion-in-budapest-hungary-12463748/ ] #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
26-Feb-2023 03 am
 

On the southern tip of the Danish island of Funen, close to Kvaerndrup, is where one will find Egeskov Castle. The building is the best-maintained Renaissance water castle in Europe. In 1405 A.D., Egeskov was first mentioned. Frands Brockenhuus built the castle building around 1554. Most Danish nobility constructed their homes as fortifications because of the hardships brought on by the Counts Feud, widespread civil unrest, and a civil war that led to the Protestant Reformation. The castle is situated in a small lake with a deepest point of five metres and is built on oaken piles. The drawbridge was initially the only means of entry. The name Egeskov, which means — Oak Forest, comes from a tale that claims it took a whole forest of oak trees to lay the foundation. Since purchasing it from heirs of the Brockenhuus family in 1784, the Bille-Brahe family has owned the estate. The counts Ahlefeldt-Laurvig-Bille, who still possess it, inherited it in 1882. The castle is a Late Gothic structure from the outside. The basic components already exhibit Renaissance architecture. The castle is made up of two long structures joined by a substantial double wall, which enables the defenders to evacuate one building and carry on battling from the other. The double wall is over one metre thick and has a well and a set of hidden stairs. From the two circular corner towers, defenders could strike the flanks of an adversary. Scalding holes, arrow slits, and artillery ports are a few additional mediaeval defences. The bricks used to build the castle are of a huge mediaeval variety known as Monks Bricks. The conical towers are built out of various individual panels. Depressed and round-arched windows, round-arched blank arcading inside the gables, and a double string course between the lofty cellar and the ground floor are all features of the architecture. The building has some of the earliest indoor plumbing designs, which were developed in Europe and had vertical shafts for waste. A water well that is accessible from the kitchen of the servants in the east house is also part of the strong double wall. Massive parallel uncovered beams with some end carving may be found in a few of the major rooms [Information Credit : Egeskov_Castle, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egeskov_Castle ] [Image: Egeskov Castle, Kvrndrup, Denmark ; Credit : Bruna Noronha, Pexels; (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URLs for More Usage Properties)] [Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/egeskov-castle-kvrndrup-denmark-6270891/ ] #Architecture #Castles










@Monuments and Architecture
19-Feb-2023 12 am
 

In the western Slovakian region of Trenčín, near the village of Beckov in Nové Mesto nad Váhom District, lies a castle that is in ruins called Beckov Castle. It is a cultural and national landmark, and the restorations that took place between 2002 and the final part of the 20th century gave it its current form. The original name of the castle, in Latin, was Blundix. The term was taken from the Slavic word Bludište, which reflected the challenging topography of the region. Subsequently, the name of the castle was changed to reflect that of the nearby village of Beckov. A klippe of the Hronic nappe that is effectively revealed by the Váh River is the Beckov Cliff. The fortress, which is perched on a rock beside a river, served as strategic outlook of Great Moravia. There was most likely a stone fortress constructed in the middle of the thirteenth century to guard the frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary. During the turn of the thirteenth and fourteenth century, Matthew III Csák acquired ownership of the fortress, which he reinforced. Castellans took over management of the castle after his death in 1321 A.D. Miklós Bánffy received the fortress from Louis I of Hungary in 1379 as gratitude for his participation in conflicts in the Balkans and Italy. Sigismund, King of Hungary, gave the castle to Stibor of Stiboricz of the Clan of Ostoja, a Baron with Polish ancestry, in 1388. Stibor owned 31 castles, but he picked Beckov as his residence and took extra care of it. He had the castle Gothically rebuilt to serve as the residence of his family. To make Beckov a unique place, artists from Veneto, Poland, Germany, and Bohemia worked on it. Stibor also constructed a church that featured magnificent sculptural ornamentation and paintings, including a sculpture of Black Madona that was at the time regarded as one of the most beautiful sculptures of Europe. A family coat of arms carved out of stone was located at the entryway of the chapel. Stibor Stiboric of Beckov received the castle as an inheritance upon the passing of his faher in 1414. Stibor Stiboric eventually left the estate to his daughter Katarína because he did not have a son. The royal council, however, ruled that she could only be given the traditional financial distribution of one-fourth of her the estate od her father. One day before Sigismund passed away in 1437 A.D., he gave Pál Bánffy the castle, perhaps with the understanding that he would wed Katarína, which he did. After the Ottoman Empire defeated the Kingdom of Hungary in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Bánffy family rebuilt the castle into a Renaissance fortress and aristocratic residence. In 1599, a Tatar siege was effectively repelled by the stronghold. The castle was owned by the Bánffy family until Kristóf Bánffy, the only surviving member, passed away in 1646. After the passing of Kristóf Bánffy, Beckov Castle was progressively converted into a prison and barracks. The interior and roofs of the castle were destroyed by fire in 1729, leaving it in ruins. In 1970, the castle was designated as a national cultural landmark. It underwent renovated in the last decade of the twentieth century, giving it its current appearance [Information Credit : Beckov_Castle, Wikipedia] [Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beckov_Castle ] [Image : Beckov, Trenčiansky kraj, Slovakia ; Credit: Daniel Pexels ; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/photo-of-castle-1130256/ ] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
15-Feb-2023 02 am
 

Alnwick, in the English county of Northumberland, is home to Alnwick Castle, a castle and country residence. It was constructed after the Norman conquest and has had numerous renovations and remodels. It is the residence of the 12th Duke of Northumberland. The family of Ralph Percy, the Twelfth Duke of Northumberland, resides in this Grade I listed building. In 2016, the Alnwick Garden, a nearby attraction, and the castle together attracted more than 600,000 tourists annually. Road that crosses the River Aln is protected by Alnwick Castle. The first portions of the castle were built by Ivo de Vesci, Baron of Alnwick, around 1096 A.D. The son of Yves de Vescy, Beatrix de Vesci, wed Eustace fitz John, the constable of Chestershire and Knaresborough. The baronies of Malton and Alnwick were given to him through his marriage to Beatrix de Vesci. When King David I of Scotland took possession of the fortress in 1136 A.D. , it was first referenced. It was characterised as being very strong at this stage. William the Lion, King of Scotland, besieged it twice in 1172 and 1174 A.D. , and after the Battle of Alnwick, William was taken prisoner outside the city walls. Eustace de Vesci of Alnwick, the lord, was charged in 1212 for conspiring against King John alongside Robert Fitzwalter. In retaliation, John ordered the destruction of both Alnwick Castle and stronghold of Fitzwalter, Castle of Baynard, however his directives at Alnwick were not followed. When father of Ivo de Vesci passed away in Gascony in 1253, his descendent John de Vesci inherited to the titles and possessions of his father. King Henry III of England gave a foreign kinsman the wardship of his properties because John was a minor, which greatly offended the de Vesci family. The Percys bought the assets and estates of the family, which had been placed under the care of Antony Bek. The Percy family has owned Alnwick and its castle ever since, first as the earls of Northumberland and then as the dukes of Northumberland, despite the fact that they still kept their Yorkshire holdings and titles. The Percy family had a position of prominence as lords in northern England. Richard II was overthrown and Henry Percy, the First Earl of Northumberland between 1341–1408, also participated in that uprising against him. Following the loss of Harry Hotspur in the Battle of Shrewsbury, Monarch Henry IV pursued the earl who had later rebelled alongside his son against the king. In 1403, the castle gave up under the prospect of bombardment. Castles were rarely attacked during the Wars of the Roses, and most fighting took place on the battlefield. In the years 1461 and 1462, Lancastrian armies held three castles, including Alnwick. Alnwick Castle became increasingly deserted after Thomas Percy, the 7th Earl of Northumberland, was put to death in 1572. Following the Battle of Dunbar in 1650, Oliver Cromwell would utilise the fortress to imprison prisoners. Under the direction of the relocating Percy family, Robert Adam, James Paine, Daniel Garrett, and Capability Brown made numerous changes to the property in the second part of the 18th century. Algernon, 4th Duke of Northumberland, however, altered much of the design of Adam in the nieteenth century. Instead, between 1854 and 1865, he paid Anthony Salvin £250,000 to have the Gothic extensions and other architectural work removed. The kitchen, the Prudhoe Tower, the opulent accommodations, and the design of the inner ward are primarily the responsibility of Salvin  [Information and Image Credit : Alnwick_Castle, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alnwick_Castle ] [Image : Alnwick Castle, by J. M. W. Turner] [The Work (Image) is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The author died in 1851, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the Life of Author plus 100 years or fewer. The work (Image) is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1928. (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Wikipedia-Image-Source-Link :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:J.M.W._Turner_-_Alnwick_Castle_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg ]  #Architecture #Art










@Monuments and Architecture
13-Feb-2023 02 am
 

The Doolin Castle of Ireland, built in the sixteenth century, is known as Doonagore Castle. The Doonagore Castle of Doolin is perched on a hill, providing breathtaking panoramas of the landscape. The castle, an apparent round tower dwelling that belongs to the middle of the sixteenth century, has a small courtyard that is surrounded by a protective wall. Boats and ferries making their final dip into Doolin Pier use the castle as a navigational landmark. Sandstone was used in the construction of the modern Doolin Castle. As early as 1300 A.D. , there was a previous castle on this land or quite close by. A Spanish Armada ship ran into trouble off the coast of Doolin in 1588, and it wrecked not far from the castle. Some 170 crew members of the ship were able to escape the burning ship. At the castle or a nearby location known as Cnocán a Crochaire, it is thought that all of the victims were hanged. Early on, the castle was divided amongst two of the most powerful clans of County Clare. Doonagore Castle was later given to an individual named John Sarsfield as a result of the Cromwellian settlement following the Irish Rebellion of 1641. After the Rebellion, the Cromwellian settlement was established. It comprised a multitude of punishments, including execution and land forfeiture, against people who had gotten involved in the 1641 Rebellion. Doolin Castle was transferred to the Gore family in the eighteenth century, many years after it was first acquired. At this juncture, the castle had become dilapidated, and the Gores set out to renovate most of it. Doonagore Castle had once again degraded by the middle of the nineteenth century. Then an Irish-American American private buyer called John C. Gorman decided to capitalize and purchased it. [Information-Credit :  https://www.theirishroadtrip.com/doonagore-castle/ ] [Image: Doonagore Castle on Green Grass Field ; Credit: Andrew Mulleady ; Pexels; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link :  https://www.pexels.com/photo/doonagore-castle-on-green-grass-field-12906014/#Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
11-Feb-2023 11 pm
 

In Rhineland-Palatinate region of Germany, Cochem is both the administrative centre of the district and its largest town. Cochem was populated as early as the Celtic and Roman eras. It was originally mentioned in a record in 866 A.D. as Villa cuchema. History has also revealed names like Cuhckeme and Chuckeme in 893 A.D., Cochemo in 1051, Chuchumo in 1056, Kuchema in 1130 A.D., Cucheme in 1144, then Cuchme, and Cochheim or Cocheim in the eighteenth century. An royal estate, Cochem. When the French conquest began in 1794, it was still Electoral-Trier territory that King Adolf of Nassau had committed to the Archbishopric of Trier in 1294. Cochem received town privileges in 1332 A.D., and soon after that the defences of the town, which are still in place today, were constructed. The town experienced a plague epidemic between 1423 and 1425. Elector Lothar von Metternich oversaw the establishment of a Capuchin convent in 1623. The town was under siege during the Thirty Years War, but it was not taken over. The Winneburg Castle was destroyed by fire by soldiers of King Louis XIV in 1689 before the town of Cochem and its castle were taken. Reconstruction took a very lengthy time. French authority of Cochem started in 1794 A.D. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, it was given to the Kingdom of Prussia. Louis François In 1866, Jacques Ravené acquired the abandoned Imperial palace and started to rebuild it. The two fishing villages of Cond and Sehl were only merged with the town during reform efforts in 1932 after a bridge over the Moselle was constructed at Cochem in 1927 [Information Credit : Cochem, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochem ] [Image: Cochem Castle on a Hill near an Old Town by Vish Pix, Pexels; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link: https://www.pexels.com/photo/cochem-castle-on-a-hill-near-an-old-town-13410527/ ] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
09-Feb-2023 11 pm
 

Santa Maria della Salute, also referred to as the Salute or just the Salute, is a minor basilica and Roman Catholic church situated in Punta della Dogana in the Dorsoduro district of the city of Venice, Italy. The church is noticeable while approaching the Piazza San Marco from the water as it is situated on the small finger of Punta della Dogana, between the Grand Canal and the Giudecca Canal. The Salute, the most contemporary of the so-known plague churches, is a member of the Gesuati parish. An exceptionally severe plague outbreak struck Venice in 1630. The Republic of Venice committed to erect and consecrate a church to Our Lady of Health as a devotional tribute for the relief by the city from the plague. Baldassare Longhena, an apprentice of the architect Vincenzo Scamozzi, created the church in the then-popular Baroque style. Building work started in 1631. The majority of the works of art kept in the chapel make mention of the Black Death. The dome of the Salute was a big contributor to the skyline of Venice and quickly came to symbolise the city, featuring in works by both residents and visitors, including Canaletto and Francesco Guardi, as well as J. M. W. Turner and John Singer Sargent. [Information Credit : Santa_Maria_della_Salute , Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Maria_della_Salute ] [Image-Credit : Pixabay, Pexels; ; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link :  https://www.pexels.com/photo/white-architectural-structure-beside-bodies-of-water-during-daytime-161101/ ]  #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
24-Jan-2023 03 am
 

In Durham, County Durham, England, there is a cathedral called Durham Cathedral. The Bishop of Durham, who is fourth in the Church of England hierarchy, has his seat there. In 1093 A.D. , work on the current cathedral, which dates to the Norman era, began to replace the former White Church of the city. Both Durham Castle and the cathedral were named UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986. The relic of Saint Cuthbert was brought to Durham by Lindisfarne monks in the eight century, together with head of Saint Oswald and the remains of Venerable Bede. Three copies of the Magna Carta, as well as some of the most comprehensive sets of early printed books in England, can be found in the Durham Dean and Chapter Library. The Bishop of Durham had the authority of an Earl Palatine from 1080 until 1836 A.D. Powers of an earl comprised asserting military, civic, and ecclesiastical leadership in order to safeguard the Anglo-Scottish border. The cathedral walls were a part of Durham Castle, the episcopal residence. The Durham Cathedral Choir sings every day besides Mondays and holidays, and there are regular Church of England prayers held there. In 2019, 727,367 people visited. William of St-Calais, who was named the first Prince-Bishop by King William the Conqueror in 1080 A.D., was responsible for the design and construction of the current cathedral. He established the Benedictine Priory of St. Cuthbert in Durham in 1083 A.D., and after expelling the secular canons who had been in control of the nearby church and St. Cuthbert shrine , together with their wives and children, he substituted them with monks from the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow. He split the vast church estates between his own episcopate and the new Priory. Aldwin was named as the first prior by him. In 1093, Bishop William of St. Calais destroyed the old Saxon church and, along with Prior Turgot of Durham, lay the cornerstone for the massive new cathedral! [Information-Credit : Durham_Cathedral, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link::  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durham_Cathedral ] [Image : Durham Cathedral Under Clear Skies ; Image-Credit: Frank Samet, Pexels ; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link :  https://www.pexels.com/photo/durham-cathedral-under-clear-skies-14211178/#Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
23-Jan-2023 12 am
 

Muckross House, or Teach Mhucrois in Irish, is situated on the tiny Muckross Peninsula between Muckross Lake and Lough Leane, two of the lakes of Killarney, in County Kerry, Ireland, six kilometres from the town of Killarney. It was given to the Irish people in 1932 by William Bowers Bourn and Arthur Rose Vincent. As a result, it established the foundation for the current Killarney National Park and became the first national park in the Irish Free State , which is now the Republic of Ireland. It had 65 rooms and was constructed in the Tudor style. In the 1850s, significant upgrades were made in anticipation of the visit of Queen Victoria in 1861. It is rumoured that the upgrades made in preparation for the visit of the Queen, played a part in the consequent financial struggles of the Herbert family, which led to the selling of the estate. Arthur Guinness, 1st Baron Ardilaun, purchased it in 1899 with the intention of preserving the breathtaking surroundings. He did not live there, but rather rented it out as a hunting lodge to affluent groups. Muckross House and its holdings were once more sold to William Bowers Bourn, a prosperous Californian mining industrialist, in August 1911, just before the First World War. As a wedding gift, he and his wife gave it to their daughter Maud and her husband Arthur Rose Vincent. The two stayed there up until the death of Maud from pneumonia in 1929. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Bourn, as well as their son-in-law Arthur Vincent, made the decision in 1932 to donate Muckross House and its 11,000-acre estate to the people of Ireland. As the first national park in the Republic of Ireland, it was known as the Bourn-Vincent Memorial Park and served as the inspiration for the current Killarney National Park. Later, the size of the park was significantly increased because to the purchase of property from the estate of the former Earl of Kenmare [Information-Credit : Muckross_House, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link :: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muckross_House ] [Image: North Side View of the Muckross House, Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland ; Original-Image-Credit : Людмила Шалимова, Pexels; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/north-side-view-of-the-muckross-house-killarney-in-county-kerry-ireland-12860074/#Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
20-Jan-2023 03 pm
 

Sir Thomas Drew created the Graduates Memorial Building, a neo-Victorian structure at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, in 1897. The University Philosophical Society i.e. The Phil, the College Historical Society, and the College Theological Society are some of oldest student organisations of Trinity College. To mark the three hundred years of establishment of the Trinity College Dublin, the Graduates Memorial Building, also known as the Graduates Tercentenary Memorial Building, was built [Citation Needed]. Trinity College Dublin issued a call for proposals in May 1897 for the design of an alternative for the residences of Rotten Row neighborhood. Architecturally, these structures were nearly identical to The Rubrics, which existed from around 1700. The design of Sir Thomas Drew was chosen from among those submitted by Robert John Stirling, Thomas Newenham Deane, and others [Citation Needed]. The building is separated into three houses as a result of its design: Houses 28 and 30, which serve as student apartments, and House 29, which is located in the middle of the structure and is utilised by the societies [Citation Needed]. Rotten Row was razed and construction on the replacement structure started in 1899. It was inaugurated on May 31st, 1902, and its development was partly funded by contributions from alumni [Citation Needed]. The enormous interior of the structure is mostly used for scientific research, debate, and by the three groups that use it. Its four storeys are home to a variety of rooms. A sizable wooden staircase that ascends vertically from the first level to the second story is located in the main entryway. The Debating Chamber, with its two-story high ceiling, carved balcony, and Ionic pillars, is located on the ground level and is commonly utilised by The Phil and The Hist. A bronze relief of George Ferdinand Shaw, a former Phil librarian and senior fellow, is mounted on the west side of the room. The conversation room of the University Philosophical Society, which is situated on the ground level, offers its members a place to gather, chat, and unwind. The paper reading sub-group of the society, The Bram Stoker Club, meets in its chat room [Information Credit : Graduates_Memorial_Building, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graduates_Memorial_Building ] [Image: The Graduates Memorial Building in Trinity College Dublin ; Image-Credit : Hamit Ferhat Hazar , Pexels; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/the-graduates-memorial-building-in-trinity-college-dublin-14882267/ ] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
19-Jan-2023 10 pm
 

In Northumberland on the northeast coast of England, close to the settlement of Bamburgh, is a castle called Bamburgh Castle. It is a listed structure of Grade I. From its founding in around 420 to 547 A.D. , the location may have served as the capital of the kingdom of Bernicia, which was centred on the Celtic Brittonic fort known as Din Guarie. It was taken by King Ida of Bernicia in the following year. The fort was controlled by the Anglo-Saxons in 590 A.D. after three exchanges between the Britons and them. Vikings demolished the fort in 993 A.D. , and the Normans eventually constructed a new castle there, the foundation of which still stands today. The fortress belonged to the English king after a rebellion that was supported by its owner in 1095 A.D. resulted in its confiscation. Financial issues in the seventeenth century caused the castle to deteriorate, but several owners rebuilt it in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. William Armstrong, a Victorian manufacturer, eventually purchased it and finished the renovation. The castle is accessible to the general public and still belong to the Armstrong family. The site, which is a portion of the Whin Sill and is built on top of a black rock of volcanic dolerite, once housed a fort belonging to the local Celtic Britons known as Din Guarie. Between the time the kingdom of Bernicia, the sphere of Gododdin people, was established in around 420 and 547 A.D., that the fortress was first mentioned in writing, it may have served as its capital. Ida of Bernicia i.e. Beornice, an Anglo-Saxon tyrant, took control of the castle that year and made it her home. During the war of 590 A.D. , the Britons briefly retook the castle from his son Hussa before regaining it later that year. Æthelfrith, the successor of Hussa, gave it to his wife Bebba in the early 600s, who gave rise to the name Bebbanburh. The initial defence was destroyed by Vikings in 993 A.D. The current castle was based on a new castle that the Normans erected there. During a rebellion led by its lord, Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria, it was besieged but not successfully by William II in 1095. Following that, Bamburgh was given to the reigning English monarch. The stronghold was presumably built by Henry II because it was finished by 1164. Sir John Forster was appointed the first Governor of Bamburgh Castle by King Richard I in recognition of his assistance following the Siege of Acre in 1191 A.D. King David II was imprisoned at Bamburgh Castle after the Scots were routed at the Battle of Neville Cross in 1346. King David II was detained at Bamburgh Castle after the Scots lost the Battle of Neville Cross in 1346. The fortress was governed by Philip of Oldcoates at the time of the civil wars near the end of reign of King John. It was the first castle in England to be destroyed by artillery in the Wars of the Roses in 1464, after a nine-month blockade by Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker, on behalf of the Yorkists. Up until the Crown gave possession of the church and the castle to another Sir John Forster, the Forster family of Northumberland continued to supply the Crown with succeeding governors of the castle. The family maintained possession until Sir William Forster was adjudged bankrupt after his death in 1704, at which point his holdings, along with the castle, were sold to Lord Crew, Bishop of Durham, to pay off the debts. Thomas Sharp, the Archdeacon of Northumberland, served as the board chairman of the trustees appointed by Crewe to manage the castle. After Thomas Sharp went away, John Sharp assumed control of the board of trustees. He renovated the castle keep and courtrooms and built a hospital there. William Armstrong, a Victorian industrialist, purchased the castle in 1894 and finished the repair. Pillboxes were built in the sand dunes to safeguard the castle and its surroundings from German invasion during the Second World War. In 1944, a Royal Navy corvette was given the name HMS Bamborough Castle in honour of the castle. The Armstrong family is still the owner of the castle. The castle was designated as a Grade I Listed property following the War [Information Credit : Bamburgh_Castle, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamburgh_Castle ] [Image: Grayscale Photo of Bamburgh Castle ; Image-Credit : Luke Tinker, Pexels; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link :  https://www.pexels.com/photo/grayscale-photo-of-bamburgh-castle-4622722/ ] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
18-Jan-2023 03 am
 

In the Swabian Jura region of southern Germany, there is a privately held Gothic Revival castle called Lichtenstein Castle. Its moniker, shining stone or bright stone, refers to its Carl Alexander Heideloff-designed aesthetic. The castle has a view of the Echaz valley, which is close to Honau in Reutlingen, Baden-Württemberg. The 1840–1842 construction of the present castle was motivated by the 1826 novel Lichtenstein by Wilhelm Hauff. A couple of hundred metres away are the remnants of an older mediaeval fortress. On the cliff above the origin of the river Echaz, a fortress that belonged to a family of ministerials of the counts of Achalm and afterwards the counts of Württemberg was built starting approximately 1100 A.D. Due to their hostility toward the Free Imperial City of Reutlingen, the castle and the lords of Lichtenstein who lived there were frequently attacked. The original castle was demolished twice: initially during the 1311 A.D. imperial civil war and once between 1377 and 1381 A.D. by Reutlingen residents. A second castle was erected around 1390, about 500 metres from the remnants of the old one. The location chosen was the same as for the existing building. it was One of the finest defences of the Late Middle Ages. The castle lost its status as the ducal seat in 1567 A.D. and fell into decay despite characteristics like early casemates that rendered it virtually impenetrable. After the death of the very last descendant of the Lichtenstein family in 1687 during the Great Turkish War, it was seized by the Tyrolean line of the Habsburgs during the Thirty Years War period i.e. 1618– 1648 A.D. The Hallway of the castle still houses the coat of arms of the family, which is a pair of golden angel wings on a blue backdrop. The castle was taken over by King Frederick I of Württemberg in 1802, who leveled it down to its very foundations and built a hunting lodge in its place. Johann Georg Rupp oversaw the construction of the New Lichtenstein Castle, which got under way in 1840. With a curtain wall and courtyard to complete the castle complex, this building, whose design was profoundly affected by Count Wilhelm, stood up to three stories tall on the 1390 underpinnings of the ancient castle. In 1857, a barbican and a sizable outer bailey with corner bastions and towers were built. When the castle was finished in 1842, the king was present for its dedication. It was the official residence of the Dukes of Urach starting in 1869. [Information-Credit : Lichtenstein_Castle_(Württemberg), Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lichtenstein_Castle_(W%C3%BCrttemberg) ] [Image: Photo of Lichtenstein Castle Image-Credit : MARTHA SALES , Pexels; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License)  Image-Source-Link :  https://www.pexels.com/photo/photo-of-lichtenstein-castle-1590882/#Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
16-Jan-2023 04 am
 

The Normandy region of France includes the tidal island and mainland municipality of Mont-Saint-Michel. The island is 7 hectares in size and is located at the mouth of the Couesnon River close to Avranches, about one kilometre off the northwestern coast of the nation. The mainland portion of the commune spans 393 hectares. There were 29 people living on the island as of 2019. The commune was situated on an island just a few hundred metres from the mainland, making it accessible at low tide to the numerous pilgrims who visited its abbey but defendable as an incoming tide left potential attackers stranded, drove them away, or drowned them. The island escaped capture during the Hundred Years War after a tiny garrison successfully repelled an English full-scale invasion in 1433. Louis XI converted it to a jail after seeing the negative effects of its natural defence. Throughout the Ancien Régime, the abbey was frequently used as a jail. Because of its distinctive appeal, UNESCO added Mont-Saint-Michel and its surrounding harbour to its list of World Heritage Sites in 1979. Each year, more than 3 million individuals go there. The commune is home to more than 60 structures that are designated as historical sites in France. The trans-channel culture that had persisted since the Romans left in 460 A.D. was put to an end to when the Franks raided Mont-Saint-Michel in the sixth and seventh centuries, serving as an Armorican stronghold of Gallo-Roman culture and authority [Without Citation]. Mont-Saint-Michel belonged to the realm of Neustria from around the 5th to the 8th centuries, and was a significant location in the Neustrian marches in the early 9th century [Without Citation]. In the Treaty of Compiègne, the king of the Franks consented to give the Bretons the Cotentin peninsula and the Avranchin, including Mont-Saint-Michel, which is customarily connected to the city of Avranches, as he was unable to protect his country against Viking attacks. A brief era of Breton control over the Mont began at this point. In 933 A.D., William I Longsword acquired the Cotentin Peninsula from the struggling Duchy of Brittany, giving the hill new critical implications. The Bayeux Tapestry, which honours the 1066 Norman invasion of England, depicts this as making the mount unmistakably a part of Normandy. The bid for the English throne by William the Conqueror was supported by the monastery of Mont-Saint-Michel in 1067. The Kingdom of England repeatedly attacked the island during the Hundred Years War but failed to take it because of the superior defences of the abbey. But there were hardly any monks living there by the time of the French Revolution. Initially used as a prison to house ecclesiastical opponents of the republican government, the abbey was eventually closed down. It was followed by jailing of prominent political prisoners as well. However soon, a drive to repair what was seen as a national architectural gem was started in 1836 by notable people, including Victor Hugo. In 1863, the prison was ultimately shut down. German troops seized Mont-Saint-Michel when occupying France during World War II, using the St. Auburn church as a lookout position. After the initial Allied assault of D-Day, many worn-out German soldiers sought refuge in fortresses like Mont-Saint-Michel. Eventually Allied troops arrived at Mont-Saint-Michel on August 1, 1944. Mont-Saint-Michel and its bay were included to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1979. They were judged according to standards including relevance to culture, history, and architecture, as well as to the beauty of both man-made and natural structures! [Information-Credit : Mont-Saint-Michel , Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mont-Saint-Michel ] [Image: Le Mont-Saint-Michel, Normandie, Frankreich; Image-Credit : Jan , Pexels; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/mont-saint-michel-in-france-13526276/ ] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
15-Jan-2023 09 pm
 

Among the biggest and finest maintained fallen Cistercian monasteries in England is Fountains Abbey. It is situated in North Yorkshire, close to the community of Aldfield, some 3 miles to the southwest of Ripon. The abbey, which was established in 1132 A.D. and ran for 407 years till being dissolved by Henry VIII in 1539, was one of the richest monasteries in England during that time. The National Trust bought Studley Royal Park, which includes the remains of Fountains Abbey, in 1983. English Heritage is in charge of upkeep for the abbey. Saint Robert of Newminster was one of 13 monks exiled from Abbey of St Mary of York, following a disagreement and riot in 1132 A.D. They were given shelter by Thurstan, the Archbishop of York, who also gave them property in the valley of the River Skell, a branch of the Ure. The confined valley provided all the natural elements required for the construction of a monastery, including protection from the elements, building materials like stone and wood, and a source of flowing water. The monks gave the area the name Fountains because it was nourished by six springs. The monks made an application to join the Cistercian order after suffering through a difficult winter in 1133 A.D. The community had more than 500 houses by the start of the thirteenth century and had been a rapidly expanding reform action since the close of the preceding century. Fountains, following Rievaulx, became the second Cistercian monastery in northern England in 1135. The Fountains monks were forced to submit to leadership of St. Bernard at Clairvaux Abbey in Burgundy. The party was taught how to observe the seven Canonical Hours in conformity with Cistercian usage by Geoffrey of Ainai, a monk sent from Clairvaux, and was also trained how to build wooden structures in keeping with Cistercian tradition! [Information Credit : Fountains_Abbey, Wikipedia; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fountains_Abbey ] [Image: Fountains Abbey, Ripon, North Yorkshire, England; mage-Credit : Lewis Ashton , Pexels; (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License) Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/fountains-abbey-ripon-north-yorkshire-england-10413532/ ] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
14-Jan-2023 03 am
 

On an island in the river Suir stands Cahir Castle, one of the biggest castles of Ireland. The Thomond King Conchobar Ua Briain began construction on it in 1142 A.D.. The castle, which is now located in the heart of Cahir, County Tipperary, is well-maintained and offers multilingual audiovisual displays and guided tours. The cathair or stone fort, which gave the area its name, was located on and close to the site of the castle. The O Brien family built the main structure of the castle in the thirteenth century. The castle was constructed in two sections, the side along the street having been completed 200 years prior to the side containing the current audio-visual exhibition. The castle, which was given to the wealthy Butler family in the late fourteenth century, was expanded and renovated between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. It was largely repaired in the 1840s after it was reduced to ruins in the late 18th century. In 1840, the Great Hall underwent a partial rebuild. James Butler, the newly appointed Earl of Ormond, received the castle in 1375 as payment for his allegiance to Edward III. Even though his offspring were not themselves aristocratic, his son James by his second marriage, the second Earl, left the estates around the baronies of Iffa and Offa West to his children. By the time the first of the Barons Cahir was established in 1542 A.D., this practice had changed. This Butler dynasty line supported the Roman Catholic Irish in the Elizabethan wars, in contrast to their Anglican relatives. The forces of earl of Essex took control of the fortress in 1599 following a three-day siege, and Sir Charles Blount was given command of it for a full year. In 1601, Lord Cahir allied himself with the Earl of Tyrone; he was accused of treason but eventually granted a full clemency. In 1627, the son-in-law of Cahir, Lord Dunboyne, murdered his distant cousin, James Prendergast, at the castle as part of a family succession issue. He was prosecuted for the murder but found not guilty. The fortress was under attack twice during the Irish Confederate Wars. Upon his victory at the Battle of Knocknanauss in 1647, Murrough O Brien, 6th Baron Inchiquin, demanded the surrender of George Mathew, the guardian of the young Lord Cahir. During invasion of Ireland by Oliver Cromwell in 1650, he again submitted to him without exchanging fire. The last Lord Cahir passed away in 1961, and the Irish government acquired ownership of the castle! [Information-Credit : Cahir_Castle, Wikipedia ; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cahir_Castle ] Image: Tower of Cahir Castle in Ireland ; Image-Credit : Людмила Шалимова , Pexels; Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/tower-of-cahir-castle-in-ireland-12860067/ (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License)] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
12-Jan-2023 02 am
 

A destroyed medieval castle known as Ogrodzieniec Castle can be found in Podzamcze, close to Ogrodzieniec, in the Polish Jura area of south-central Poland. In its storied record, the castle, which dates to the fourteenth century, has undergone numerous reconstructions. It is located atop Castle Mountain, the tallest hill in the Kraków-Czstochowa Upland at about 515.5 metres. The remains are accessible to tourists and are located along the Trail of the Eagles-Nests, a hiking route that links several well-known castles in the area. The Mountainous fortifications of the Ogrodzieniec Castle have been there since the early twelfth century, during the rule of Boleslaus III Wrymouth. The first fortification on the summit of the hill was constructed during his tenure. At the time of Mongol Invasion of Europe in 1241 A.D. , the rampart and foundation of the original keep, which were primarily composed of wood and dirt, was completely destroyed. The Wlodek Sulima family moved into this new gothic fortress in the middle of the fourteenth century. The castle blended in well with the landscape because it was surrounded by three large boulders. A small space between two of the boulders acted as a gateway, and the protective walls were constructed to complete the loop created by the rocks. Ibram and Piotr Salomon, two well-to-do citizens of Cracovia, purchased the castle and surrounding grounds in 1470 A.D. Between 1530 and 1545 A.D., Seweryn Boner built a Renaissance castle to replace the older fortress. Remnants of the Renaissance lily frescoes can still be seen on the ground floor. Folklore in the area claims that the Ogrodzieniec Castle is plagued by the spectre known as the — Black Dog of Ogrodzieniec, who is sometimes seen at night wandering the ruins while dragging a hefty chain. [Information-Credit : Ogrodzieniec_Castle , Wikipedia ; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogrodzieniec_Castle ] [Image: Ogrodzieniec Castle ; Image-Credit : Dominika Roseclay , Pexels; Image-Source-Link :   https://www.pexels.com/photo/castle-1071188/ (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License)]  #Architecture 










@Monuments and Architecture
11-Jan-2023 04 am
 

In the German hills above the Moselle between Koblenz and Trier, Eltz Castle is a mediaeval fortress. A lineage of the House of Eltz, who had resided there since the twelfth century, still owns it. The only castles in the Eifel region that have never been razed are Eltz Castle, Bürresheim Castle and Lissingen Castle. The Elzbach River, a tributary of the Moselle on the north side, surrounds the castle on three sides and is 70 metres high. The castle was built in an area that, during the Roman era, served as a vital commerce route connecting prosperous farmlands with their marketplaces. The region was taken by the Franks after the Western Roman Empire fell in the late fifth century. However, as dominion of Charlemagne was divided, his son Louis the Pious received the region in 814 A.D. During this time, a straightforward royal hall with an earthen fence stood on the site. On the location of the previous manor hall, House of Eltz started construction on the Platteltz, a Romanesque keep, some hundred years later. The earliest portion of the castle is still this one. Under Frederick Barbarossa, the castle played a significant role in the Holy Roman Empire by 1157 A.D. The manor is what is known as a — Ganerbenburg, or a manor that is owned by a group of shared heirs. This is a castle that has been divided into numerous portions, each of which belongs to a separate family or offshoot of a family. This typically happens when several owners of one or more regions collaborate to create a castle to serve as a residence for themselves. Flora-Fauna-Habitat and Natura 2000 have designated the Eltz Forest nearby as a nature reserve! [Information-Credit : Eltz_Castle, Wikipedia ; Wikipedia-Link  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eltz_Castle ] Image: Eltz Castle on a Misty Day ; Image-Credit : Taylor Marx , Pexels; Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/eltz-castle-on-a-misty-day-11448182/ (Please Relate to Source Image-URL for More Image Usage Property and License)] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
09-Jan-2023 01 am
 

In Connemara, County Galway, Ireland, a Benedictine monastery known as Kylemore Abbey was established in 1920. The English Benedictine Congregation has owned the monastery since 2022. It was established for Benedictine Nuns who had left Belgium during World War I. For the family of affluent London doctor Mitchell Henry, whose ancestors worked in the textile industry of Manchester, England, Kylemore Castle was constructed in 1868. After visiting Ireland on their romantic getaway in the middle of the 1840s, he and his wife Margaret settled there when they bought the land surrounding the Abbey. He entered into politics and served as the MP of County Galway from 1871 to 1885. Samuel Ussher Roberts helped James Franklin Fuller construct the castle. Beginning in 1867, the structure of the castle required a total of 100 men and four years to complete. The castle comprised around seventy chambers, a floor area of over 40,000 square feet, and a main wall that was about two to three feet thick. After Henry went back to England, the Abbey continued on his property. The Duke and Duchess of Manchester purchased the castle in 1903, and they lived there for a while before being forced to sell the property due to gambling debts. After being compelled to escape Ypres during World War I, nuns bought the Abbey fortress and its surrounding territories. The Abbey and the University of Notre Dame in the US have been working together since 2015. Notre Dame students attend curriculums held at the abbey, which was recently refurbished by the university [Information Credit : Kylemore_Abbey, Wikipedia ; Wikipedia-Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kylemore_Abbey ] [Image : Kylemore Abbey, Connemara, County Galway, Ireland ; Image-Credit : Philippe Bonnaire ; Pexels; Image-Source-Link : https://www.pexels.com/photo/kylemore-abbey-connemara-county-galway-ireland-6354317/ (Please Relate to Source-Image URLs for More Usage Property and Licenses)] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
03-Jan-2023 02 am
 

The Irish village of Slane is home to Slane Castle, which is situated in the Boyne Valley in County Meath. Since it was constructed in the late eighteenth century on land that Brigadier-General Henry Conyngham initially bought in 1703 A.D. , the castle has served as the homestead of the Conynghams. Inside its premises, the Slane Festival is held. The ruins of Hermitage of St. Erc, a multi-story chapel built in the fifteenth century, are located on the east side of the castle demesne, between the River Boyne and the village-Church-of-Ireland in Slane. The Hermitage of St. Erc is about 500 metres west of a historic well. This well is claimed to have been sanctified by the God Dian Cecht so that the Tuatha Dé Danann may bathe in it and be treated, purportedly healing all deadly wounds aside from decapitation, according to one of the most important works of Irish mythology, the Cath Maige Tuireadh. Slane Castle had been owned by the Flemings, Hiberno-Normans who had sided with the Jacobites in the War of the Grand Alliance, before the House of Stuart was overthrown in 1688. As a result, after the Williamite triumph, their estate was selected for seizure. Slane Castle was built under the command of William Burton Conyngham and his nephew The 1st Marquess Conyngham, overlooking the River Boyne a few kilometres upstream from Newgrange and the scene of the infamous Battle of the Boyne. The main contributors to the rebuilding, which began in 1785, were Francis Johnston, James Wyatt, and James Gandon. The Gothic Gates on the Mill Hill, which are positioned to the east of the castle, were also designed by Francis Johnston. The Slane Estate in County Meath has been associated with the Ulster-Scots Conynghams for more than 300 years, since the family acquired it after the Williamite Confiscations in 1701 A.D. The family relocated their primary hereditary seat south at that time from County Donegal in west Ulster to Slane. U2 from Ireland stayed there to create and record their album The Unforgettable Fire in 1984. A fire indede in the castle in 1991 significantly damaged the structure and destroyed the eastern portion that faced the River Boyne. Ten years of repair work resulted in the reopening of the castle in 2001. A cannon connected to the castle was discovered in the nearby River Boyne in 2003. [Information and Image Credit : Slane_Castle , Wikipedia] [Image: Slane Castle seen from within its grounds] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : catherinecronin , from Kinvara, Co. Galway, Ireland ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en ] [Source Image-Link :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2013_at_Slane_Castle_(8647010098).jpg#Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
31-Dec-2022 09 pm
 

One of the most recognisable and well-preserved mediaeval castles of Latvia is Cēsis Castle. The Livonian Brothers of the Sword built the core of the castle 800 years ago. The Teutonic Order, the subsequent owners of the Cēsis Castle, enjoyed the most success during this time. It developed into one of the major administrative and commercial hubs of the Teutonic Order in Livonia and served as the residence of the Landmeister in Livland. The castle is now one of the most popular tourist attractions in the Baltic states and the most visited historical landmark in Cēsis. The Livonian chapter of the Teutonic Order took control of Cēsis Castle in 1237 A.D.. The Csis Castle received extensive refurbishment under the new governor. The previous defences were progressively replaced with a massive square castle i.e. castellum, which was constructed around a courtyard and featured four ranges. The necessity for -- fortified convents -- that were simple to defend and where the residence of the brethren was as little as possible led to the importation of this Teutonic Order castle form from Prussia. As part of the castle complex, outside baileys were constructed to add extra security and make room for numerous service buildings. Cēsis became one of the biggest and mightiest castles of the Teutonic Order as a result of the major restoration. According to an architectural examination of Cēsis Castle, there were three main construction phases. On the location of the existing castle, the Brothers of the Sword erected a stone chapel, chapter house and additional structures , probably made of wood, during the first half of the thirteenth century. One of the few remaining components from this initial stage of building is a chapel with Romanesque corbels, which is located in the eastern corner of the convent castle. Teutonic Knights started converting the structure into a convent-style castle in the late fourteenth century. The castle had four ranges grouped around a quadrangle and provided all the necessary functional amenities for a militant religious community, including a chapel, refectory, dormitories, chapter-house, kitchen and services. The walls of the castle were gradually changed to withstand artillery as firearms were developed. Around 1500 A.D. , three round towers were constructed, two in the outer baileys and one in the northern corner of the covenant castle. The Master-Chamber, located on the first level of the west tower, was richly embellished at the same period with an extraordinary brick vault and painted plasterwork. According to data given by the Cēsis Culture and Tourism Center, 100 000 people visited the castle in 2016. Cēsis Castle is accessible to the public all year round! [Information and Image Credit : Cēsis_Castle , Wikipedia] [Image : Cēsis Castle in 2017] [Images Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International ; Wikipedia Image Author : CesisCastle ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Source-Image-URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CesuPils_2017-09-10.jpg ] #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
29-Dec-2022 01 am
 

The home of the Clan MacDonnell, Dunluce Fortress is a now-defunct mediaeval castle in Northern Ireland. Between Portballintrae and Portrush in County Antrim, it is situated on the rim of a basalt protrusion and is connected to the mainland by a bridge. The Vikings may have been attracted to this location where an early Irish fort formerly stood because of the incredibly steep drops that encircle the castle along both side. The Northern Ireland Environment Agency is in charge of Dunluce Castle. The monument is located in the townland of Dunluce, which is part of the jurisdiction of Coleraine Borough Council. The earthworks are a designated historic monument and are located close to Dunluce Castle. The earliest fortress at Dunluce was constructed in the thirteenth century by Richard g de Burgh, second Earl of Ulster. It is first mentioned as a possession of the The McQuillan in a document from 1513 A.D. A fortification that the McQuillans built here when they were made rulers of the Route is represented by two enormous drum towers with a combined diameter of around 9 metres on the eastern side of the castle. From the thirteenth century until the MacDonnell took over as Lords of Route after the McQuillans lost two significant conflicts with them in the middle and late sixteenth centurie, the McQuillans held that position. Later, the heads of the Clan MacDonnell of Antrim and the Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg from Scotland made Dunluce Castle their residence. The second child of Good John of Islay, Lord of the Isles and sixth chief of the Scottish Clan Donald, was Chief John Mor MacDonald. The second marriage of John of Islay to Princess Margaret Stewart, a child of King Robert II of Scotland, resulted in the birth of John Mor MacDonald. After James MacDonald, the 6th head of the Clan MacDonald of Antrim and Dunnyveg, passed away in 1584 A.D. , one of his younger brothers, Sorley Boy MacDonnell, took control of the Antrim Glens. The castle was taken by Sorley Boy, who kept it for himself and renovated it in the Scottish manner. Sorley Boy pledged his loyalty to Queen Elizabeth I, and King James I appointed his son Randal as the first Earl of Antrim. About four years later, a storm caused the neighbouring rocks to become the wreckage of the Girona, a galleass from the Spanish Armada. The cannons of the ship were placed in the gatehouses, and the remaining cargo was auctioned to provide money for the restoration of the castle. Rose, a granddaughter of MacDonnell, was born there in 1613 A.D. According to a local tradition, the wife of the owner rejected to live in the castle any more when a portion of the kitchen near to the cliff face crumbled into the sea. A kitchen lad was said to have been the sole one to survive when the kitchen collapsed into the sea because he was sitting in the kitchen corner that was spared. The kitchen of the manor house, on the other hand, is still there and undamaged. The oven, fireplace, and entranceways are still visible. The north wall of the residential structure did not fall into the water until some point in the eighteenth century. The south, west, and east walls are still in place. Up to the destitution of the MacDonnells in 1690 as a result of the Battle of the Boyne, Dunluce Castle served as the residence of the Earl of Antrim. Since then, the castle has decayed, and pieces have been salvaged to be used as building materials for surrounding structures. [Information and Image Credit : Dunluce_Castle ; Wikipedia] [Image : Dunluce Castle, 2018] [Image Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Iain Irwin ; (Kindly Relate to Individual Source Image URL for More Usage Properties)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Wikipedia Source Image URL ::   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dunluce_Castle_Northern_Ireland_1.jpg ]  #Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
27-Dec-2022 06 am
 

The sixteenth-century tower house known as Dunguaire Castle is located close to Kinvara, which is also often written as Kinvarra, in County Galway, Ireland. The Dun i.e. Fort of King Guaire, the fabled King of Connacht, is where the name of the place comes from. The defensive wall of the castle and 75-foot tower have both been repaired, and the lands are open to visitors in the summer. The Ó hEidhin i.e Hynes clan, chiefs of Coill Ua bhFiachrach i.e. the region around Kinvara, and also that of Uí Fiachrach Aidhne (a kingdom located in what is now the south of County Galway), according to 19th-century Gaelic scholar John O Donovan, were responsible for building Dunguaire. John O Donovan mentioned so both in his Ordnance Survey letters for County Galway, and his book, The Genealogies, Tribes and Customs of the Hy-Fiachrach. Uí Fiachrach Aidhne is contiguous with the diocese of Kilmacduagh, which covers the portion of County Galway between the Burren (a karst/glaciokarst landscape centred in County Clare, on the west coast of Ireland) and Galway Bay to the west and Slieve Aughty (a mountain range in the western part of Ireland) to the east. Guns in the Heather, a 1969 Walt Disney film, included Boyne Castle, which was modelled after Dunguaire Castle. Additionally, it served as the Scottish castle residence of the main character in the 1979 movie North Sea Hijack. The Road of the Dishes, also known as Bothar na Mias and involving King Guaire, is another well-known mythology in the area. Visitors may also book or prebook a banquet in the castle, which is available from April to October and includes a four-course meal and recreation. [Information and Image Credit : Dunguaire_Castle, Wikipedia] [Image : Dunguaire Castle Exterior] [Images Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Boomur ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :   https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Source-Image-URL :   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dunguaire_Castle,_Galway,_Ireland.png#Architecture










@Monuments and Architecture
27-Dec-2022 04 am
 

East Sussex, the Bodiam Castle of England is a medieval castle with moat from the fourteenth century that lies close to Robertsbridge. With the approval of Richard II, it was constructed in 1385 A.D. by Sir Edward Dalyngrigge, a former knight of Edward III, supposedly to safeguard the region against French invasion during the Hundred Years War. Bodiam Castle has a quadrangular layout and no keep; instead, its numerous chambers are placed around the outside defending walls and inner courts. Towers with battlement sections on top identify its corners and entryway. The architecture of the castle, its features, and setting amid a man-made watery backdrop show that presentation was as vital to the design as fortification. It served as both as the family residence of Dalyngrigge and the administrative hub for the manor of the Bodiam. Bodiam Castle was owned by the Dalyngrigges family for numerous decades until their line died out, at which point it was married over to the Lewknor family. When Richard III of the House of York became king in 1483 A.D., an army was sent to sack Bodiam Castle because Sir Thomas Lewknor had backed the House of Lancaster during the Wars of the Roses. It is unknown if the blockade proceeded, although it is assumed that Bodiam was abandoned with little opposition. When Henry VII of the House of Lancaster became king in 1485 A.D. , the castle was seized but later returned to the Lewknors. The castle was owned by the Lewknor family until at least the sixteenth century. Lord Thanet had control of Bodiam Castle by the time the English Civil War broke out in 1641 A.D. He backed the Royalist side and sold the castle to assist pay the fines Parliament imposed against him. After then, the castle was destroyed, and it remained a scenic ruin until John Fuller bought it in 1829 A.D. After then, the castle was destroyed, and it remained a scenic ruin until John Fuller bought it in 1829 A.D. Until being sold to George Cubitt, 1st Baron Ashcombe and later to Lord Curzon, who both conducted additional renovation work, the castle was partly renovated under his direction. As a Grade I listed structure and Scheduled Monument, the castle is conserved. Since 1925, at the bequest of Lord Curzon, The National Trust has owned the property, which is accessible to the general public! [Information and Image Credit : Bodiam_Castle ; Wikipedia] [Image : Bodiam Castle , Robertsbridge, East Sussex] [Images Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : Antony McCallum ; Attribution: www.WyrdLight.com ; (Please Relate to Individual Image URL for More Usage Property)] [License-Link : https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en ] [Source-Image-URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bodiam-castle-10My8-1197.jpg ] #Architecture










@Heritage and Geographical Sites
23-Dec-2022 05 am
 

The Carrowmore complex of megalithic structures is located on the Coolera Peninsula, west of Sligo, Ireland. They were constructed in the Neolithic period, around 4000 BC i.e. during New Stone Age. With thirty still standing tombs, Carrowmore is one of the greatest collections of megalithic tombs of Ireland and one of the Big Four megalithic tomb groupings, along with Carrowkeel, Loughcrew and Brú na Bóinne. The summit of Knocknarea to the west, which is the centre of an old ritual panorama, is Carrowmore. It is a National Monument that is protected. Carrowmore is the centre of a prehistoric ceremonial scene that is characterized by the mountain of Knocknarea to the west and the large mound of Miosgán Médhbh on top. It is situated on a tiny plateau between 36.5 and 59 metres above sea level. Four passage tombs are located in the summits of the Ballygawley Mountains, which form the eastern edge of the peninsula and are located in the Carns townland to the east. There are currently thirty landmarks in Carrowmore. Originally, there might have been additional monuments in the site, but some of them perished as a result of land clearing and quarrying in the eighteenth, nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. The compound is roughly 600 metres east-west and one kilometre north-south in dimensions. The monuments were composed of a central megalith that resembled a dolmen, five upright orthostats, and a small pentagonal burial chamber that was enclosed by a capstone that was roughly conical in shape. A circle of boulders with a diameter of 12 to 15 metres encircled each of these. The graves are often made of gneiss, and the boulder circles comprise 30 to 40 of these stones. A second, inner boulder circle can appear occasionally. The intended alignment of the dolmen is shown by the passage or entrance stones that stretch from the primary component. They approach the general direction of the central mound but are not pointed in the direction of the points of the compass. Four instances have pairs of monuments. Each monument was constructed on a little, level platform made of stone and dirt. One of the factors contributing to the lifespan of the dolmens is the skillfully constructed stone packing that encircled and secured the upright stone-bases. The roof, which is now gone, might have been supported on corbels or made of stone slabs. [Information and Image Credit : Carrowmore, Wikipedia] [Image : Tomb 13 with Maeve Cairn in the background ] [Images Availed Under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International ; Wikipedia-Image-Author : (Please Relate to Individual Image URLs for More Usage Property)] [License-Link :  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en ] [Source-Image-URL :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:County_Sligo_-_Carrowmore_Passage_Tomb_-_20190917134911.jpg ]  #Architecture